Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Volume 54 , Issue 22
Showing 1-32 articles out of 32 articles from the selected issue
EDITORIAL
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Atsuki Ikeda, Namiko Hoshi, Tetsuya Yoshizaki, Yoshimi Fujishima, Tsuk ...
    2015 Volume 54 Issue 22 Pages 2803-2813
    Published: 2015
    Released: November 15, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective The standard treatment for submucosal esophageal cancer is esophagectomy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). However, these treatment modalities could deteriorate the general condition and quality of life of the patients who are intolerant to invasive therapy. It is therefore important and beneficial to develop less invasive treatment protocols for these patients.
    Methods The study included 43 patients who were clinically suspected of mucosa or submucosal esophageal cancer but underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) as a primary treatment, due to the patients' poor performance statuses and/or preferences for less invasive therapy. According to the pathological findings and patient's general condition, whether the patient underwent additional treatments or remained hospitalized without additional treatments was thereafter decided for each patient. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of these patients.
    Results Fifteen patients underwent additional surgery, 11 patients underwent CRT/radiation therapy (RT) and 17 patients were followed without additional treatments. During the 3-year follow-up period, the relapse-free survival rates in the patients who received or did not receive additional treatments were 88% and 64%, respectively (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.76, p=0.04). The relapse-free and overall survival rates in the patients with additional treatments were equivalent or superior to those described in previous reports of the standard treatments. Preceding ESD contributed to reduce the local relapse significantly to approximately 3.5% and additional CRT-related toxicities.
    Conclusion Preceding ESD is very effective for the local control of cancer, and useful for histologically confirming the high-risk factors of relapse, such as ≥submucosal layer 2 (SM2) invasion and lymphovascular involvements. ESD with additional therapy may be a promising strategy for optimizing the selection of therapy depending on the patient's general condition.
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  • Masako Terao, Akinobu Takaki, Takayuki Maruyama, Hiroki Oe, Tetsuya Ya ...
    2015 Volume 54 Issue 22 Pages 2815-2826
    Published: 2015
    Released: November 15, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by vascular dilatation and hyperdynamic circulation, while portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is characterized by vasoconstriction with fibrous obliteration of the vascular bed. Vasoactive molecules such as nitric oxide (NO) are candidate factors for cirrhotic complications associated with these diseases. However, oxidative stress balance is not well characterized in HPS and POPH. The present objective is to investigate the oxidative stress and anti-oxidative stress balance and NO pathway balance in patients with potential HPS and POPH.
    Methods We recruited patients with decompensated cirrhosis (n=69) admitted to our hospital as liver transplantation candidates. Patients exhibiting partial pressure of oxygen lower than 80 mmHg and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaDO2) ≥15 mmHg were categorized as potentially having HPS (23 of 69 patients). Patients exhibiting a tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient ≥25 mmHg were categorized as potentially having POPH (29 of 61 patients). Serum reactive oxygen metabolites were measured and anti-oxidative OXY-adsorbent test (OXY) were performed, and the balance of these tests was defined as the oxidative index. The correlation between these values and the clinical characteristics of the patients were assessed in a cross-sectional study.
    Results Potential HPS patients exhibited no correlation with oxidative stress markers. Potential POPH patients exhibited lower OXY (p=0.037) and higher oxidative index values (p=0.001). Additionally, the vascular NO synthase enzyme inhibiting protein, asymmetric dimethylarginine, was higher in potential POPH patients (p=0.049). The potential POPH patients exhibited elevated AaDO2, suggesting the presence of pulmonary shunting.
    Conclusion Potential POPH patients exhibited elevated oxidative stress with decreased anti-oxidative function accompanied by inhibited NO production. Anti-oxidants represent a candidate treatment for potential POPH patients.
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  • Jianying Li, Qunying Guo, Jianxiong Lin, Chunyan Yi, Xiao Yang, Xueqin ...
    2015 Volume 54 Issue 22 Pages 2827-2833
    Published: 2015
    Released: November 15, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Uraemic pruritus is a distressing symptom that has a negative impact on the quality of life for dialysis patients. The pathophysiology of pruritus in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is still poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence and related risk factors of pruritus in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients.
    Methods In total, 362 CAPD cases were investigated from January 2012 to April 2013. Pruritus was assessed by visual analogue scale.
    Results The prevalence of severe pruritus and mild to moderate pruritus was 12.7% and 52.5%, respectively. The patients with severe pruritus had the longest duration of PD (p<0.001), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score (p<0.001), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score (p=0.003), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) level (p=0.009), and the lowest Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 Health Survey, Physical Component Score (SF-36 PCS) (p<0.001) among the three groups. The patients with mild to moderate pruritus had a significantly higher iPTH level (p=0.004) compared with the patients without pruritus. A multivariate logistic regression for pruritus showed that higher PSQI score [odds ratio (OR)=1.305, p=0.001], higher BDI score (OR=1.429, p=0.002), longer vintage (OR=1.039, p=0.004), and higher iPTH level (OR=1.317, p=0.014) were independently associated with pruritus.
    Conclusion The prevalence of uraemic pruritus was 65.2% in CAPD patients. Sleep disorder, depression, longer vintage, and a higher iPTH level were independent associated factors for pruritus in CAPD patients.
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  • Satoshi Konishi, Machiko Arita, Isao Ito, Hiromasa Tachibana, Takuya T ...
    2015 Volume 54 Issue 22 Pages 2835-2841
    Published: 2015
    Released: November 15, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective The goals of this study were to assess the efficacy and tolerability of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and to identify predictors of tolerability to pirfenidone.
    Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study. When the patient showed deterioration in the percent forced vital capacity (%FVC) or experienced acute exacerbations or severe adverse events, treatment of the patient with pirfenidone was discontinued. We classified the patients who did not display progression following six months of pirfenidone treatment as the tolerant group and the patients who did display progression as the intolerant group. We retrospectively analyzed differences between the two groups in terms of baseline characteristics. The efficacy of pirfenidone was evaluated by the changes in vital capacity (VC) and %FVC before and after the start of treatment in the tolerant group.
    Patients A total of 20 patients who had been diagnosed with IPF were treated with pirfenidone.
    Results In the tolerant group, the baseline %FVC (p=0.01) and the percentage diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO, p=0.02) were significantly higher, and the baseline composite physiologic index (CPI) was significantly lower (p=0.009) than in the intolerant group. In the tolerant group, pirfenidone significantly reduced the decline in VC and %FVC of the patients after treatment. In the intolerant group, five patients discontinued pirfenidone treatment because of anorexia.
    Conclusion We found that pirfenidone was better tolerated in patients with milder disease symptoms, as indicated by their baseline CPI, %FVC and %DLCO, and that patients in the tolerant group could benefit from the use of pirfenidone.
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  • Kiyoyasu Fukushima, Shigeki Nakamura, Yuichi Inoue, Yasuhito Higashiya ...
    2015 Volume 54 Issue 22 Pages 2843-2850
    Published: 2015
    Released: November 15, 2015
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective To compare the utility of Gram staining, a urinary antigen detection kit and a sputum antigen detection kit were examined for the rapid and early detection of pneumococcal pneumonia and lower respiratory infectious diseases.
    Methods A newly developed sputum pneumococcal antigen detection kit (RAPIRUN), Gram staining, and urinary antigen detection kit (BinaxNOW) were comparatively evaluated for their ability to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with pneumonia or lower respiratory tract infection. Sputum culture results were used as a standard for comparison. Furthermore, the pneumococcus-positive rates in culture and rapid tests were compared using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a reference.
    Results Of the 169 patients studied, 54 (32.0%) tested positive for S. pneumoniae in culture. S. pneumoniae detection sensitivities for Gram staining, RAPIRUN, and BinaxNOW were 75.9%, 90.7%, and 53.7%, respectively; thus, RAPIRUN had a significantly higher sensitivity than BinaxNOW (p<0.001). For patients with ≥105 copies/μg of pneumococcal surface protein A DNA PCR analysis, the detection rates of culture, Gram staining, and RAPIRUN were 85.2%, 72.1%, and 82.0%, respectively, however, the detection rate of BinaxNOW was only 47.5%. Comparisons among 45 patients with culture-positive pneumococcal pneumonia revealed that RAPIRUN had a significantly higher detection rate than BinaxNOW in the mild cases (p<0.006), regardless of the number of days from onset (p<0.03).
    Conclusion RAPIRUN is a rapid testing kit that detects S. pneumoniae in sputum with a high sensitivity and specificity. It is a particularly more useful detection kit than BinaxNOW for early and mild community-acquired pneumonia in pre-treatment patients whose sputum specimens can be obtained.
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