Objective To investigate the effect of twice-daily rabeprazole doses on health-related quality of life in refractory patients.
Methods and Patients Reflux esophagitis patients with an insufficient response to once-daily proton pump inhibitor therapy (Los Angeles Classification grade A-D) received rabeprazole 10 mg or 20 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. The health-related quality of life (SF-8™) and symptoms, using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal reflux disease, were evaluated before treatment and at weeks 4 and 8. Endoscopy was performed at baseline and at weeks 8 and 32 where possible. The rabeprazole dose was determined by the attending physician.
Results There were 1,796 patients analyzed for the efficacy of the twice-daily treatment. Of these cases, 1,462 were treated with rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily, and 334 were treated with rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily. The factors that affected the selection of the twice-daily rabeprazole dose by physicians were evaluated, and as expected, "endoscopic findings when treatment was started" had a strong effect on the selection of the rabeprazole dose. With both regimens, health-related quality of life and subjective symptoms were significantly improved at weeks 4 and 8 compared to baseline (p<0.001). The recurrence rate of erosive esophagitis at week 32 was 9.7% in rabeprazole twice daily-treated patients and 28.4% in proton pump inhibitor (PPI) once daily-treated patients. Both regimens were well tolerated.
Conclusion Twice-daily treatment with rabeprazole improved the subjective symptoms and health-related quality of life in patients with refractory reflux esophagitis more effectively than the standard once-daily dose.
Objective A previously developed sputum antigen detection kit for Streptococcus pneumoniae enabled the early diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia using sputum samples. We conducted a prospective study to compare the sensitivity of the sputum and urinary antigen kits.
Methods Pneumonia patients who were treated from April 2014 to September 2015 were recruited for the present study. Patients with pneumococcal pneumonia who could not participate in the prospective arm of the study were analyzed in the retrospective arm.
Results Nine of the 69 participants in the prospective study had pneumococcal pneumonia. The sputum antigen kit results correlated well with the sputum culture results. The sensitivity of the sputum antigen kit was 88.9% (8/9), which was higher than that of the urinary antigen kit (5/9; 55.6%). When patients from the retrospective arm of the study were included, the sensitivity of the sputum culture was 93.5% (29/31), which was significantly higher than that of the urinary antigen kit (19/31; 60.6%). False positives were obtained using the sputum antigen kit in four cases. Three of the four false positives were suspected to have resulted from the administration of antibiotics prior to the use of the kit; the remaining case likely occurred due to a false reaction to S. milleri-induced pyothorax.
Conclusion Collectively, our findings suggest that the sputum antigen kit has a higher sensitivity for detecting S. pneumoniae than the urinary antigen kit. However, the prior administration of antibiotics can render the sputum culture results negative or lead to a false-positive result.
Objective The objective of this study was to confirm the efficacy of low-dose mizoribine (MZR), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, as part of synchronized methotrexate (MTX) therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with an inadequate response to various combination therapies of MTX, other synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biological DMARDs.
Methods Low-dose MZR was administered to 56 uncontrolled RA patients being treated with MTX and various biological DMARDs. The observation period was 12 months, and the disease activity was evaluated based on the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28)-ESR, Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI) and serum MMP-3 level.
Results All of the disease activity indices were significantly improved within three months, and the serum MMP-3 levels were also significantly decreased around four months after starting low-dose MZR therapy. No patients experienced any adverse effects.
Conclusion The present preliminary findings suggest that low-dose MZR therapy with MTX should be considered for the treatment of RA patients with an inadequate response to various combination therapies including MTX, other synthetic DMARDs and biological DMARDs or in whom increasing the dose of MTX is difficult for reasons such as adverse effects and complications.
We herein report a rare case of ileal adenocarcinoma that was completely removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) without any complications. An 80-year-old man was referred to our hospital to undergo treatment for an ileal tumor. Conventional colonoscopy showed a reddish depressed lesion that was classified as type 0-IIc according to the Paris classification. The ileal tumor was successfully removed en bloc by ESD with a negative surgical margin. The histological findings showed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with no submucosal or lymphovascular invasion. Colonoscopy and CT performed one year after ESD showed no local recurrence, stenosis, or lymph node metastasis.
A 24-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital under suspicion of an exacerbation of her known ulcerative colitis. Colonoscopy revealed an edematous swelling and multifocal discharge of pus throughout the descending colon, concurrent with active ulcerative colitis findings in the rectum and sigmoid colon. Computed tomography showed a thickened wall and multifocal abscesses within the wall of the descending colon. Two weeks after starting antimicrobial therapy, she was discharged home. This is the first case report of multifocal colonic wall abscesses. In order not to increase the risk of serious infection associated with anti-TNF-α therapy, proper qualification and strict monitoring are essential.
We herein report a 68-year-old man with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (BD-IPMNs) involving type 1 localized autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) with normal serum IgG4 levels. Although he was referred to our medical center due to suspicion of pancreatic cancer concomitant with BD-IPMNs, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed a mass suspected of being pancreatic cancer to be type 1 AIP. Steroid administration notably reduced the mass. Although the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic masses in patients with IPMN can be occasionally challenging, performing a pathological examination by EUS-FNA may prevent unnecessary pancreatic surgery in cases of possible AIP.
22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS) is often complicated by autoimmune diseases. To clarify the causal relationship, we examined the lymphocyte subset distribution and the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) in two female patients (one child and an elderly) with Graves' disease (GD) and 22qDS. Thymus dysgenesis might have contributed to the T-cell imbalance and the lack of negative selection in both cases. Notably, HLA-DR14, a known risk factor for GD in Japanese individuals and the decreased regulatory T-cell numbers that were seen in the pediatric case, may affect the early onset of GD. Central and peripheral tolerance and Th1 cells appeared to be associated with the pathogenesis of GD in 22qDS.
Rhabdomyolysis, which is a characteristic occurrence in associated with muscle cell necrosis, develops due to various causes. We herein report a rare case of a patient with rhabdomyolysis after high intensity resistance training, in which markedly elevated levels of serum creatine kinase (CK) and urine myoglobin were observed. A previously healthy 37-year-old man presented with severe myalgia and dark urine after performing high-intensity exercise. The patient's serum CK level was 95,100 U/L and his urine myoglobin level was 160,000 ng/mL. His symptoms and laboratory findings gradually improved with the intravenous administration of saline and no complications (including electrolyte imbalance and acute renal failure) developed.
Leptospirosis is frequently associated with acute kidney injury. Some survivors are known to progress to chronic kidney disease due to sustained tubulointerstitial inflammation. We present a case of severe leptospirosis with acute renal failure. Although antibiotic therapy resolved the infection, moderate renal dysfunction remained. A renal biopsy demonstrated marked inflammatory infiltration in the tubules and interstitium. Many of the inflammatory cells were CD68-positive monocytes/macrophages, predominantly M1 phenotype. An intermediate dose of oral corticosteroids normalized the patient's serum creatinine levels. We suggest that corticosteroid therapy may be a therapeutic option for some patients with sustained tubulointerstitial nephritis who survive severe leptospirosis.
Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) generally responds well to corticosteroids with a favorable outcome. Rare cases of organizing pneumonia are rapidly progressive. Yousem et al. studied pathologic predictors of idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia/COP with an unfavorable prognosis. Beardsley and Rassl proposed the name fibrosing organizing pneumonia (FOP). A 74-year-old female non-smoker presented with a 2-week history of dry cough followed by dyspnea and a fever. The clinical course was fulminant, but we successfully performed bronchoscopy. After the diagnosis of FOP, we treated the patient with mechanical ventilation and high-doses of steroids/immunosuppressants, which improved the disease.
Neurolymphomatosis is a rare entity defined as nerve infiltration by neurotropic abnormal lymphocytes which can lead to the development of neuropathy, with typical presentations including pain, hypoesthesia, paresthesis and palsy. We herein report two cases where critical bilateral vocal cord paralysis due to neurolymphomatosis in recurrent nerves occurred in refractory Burkitt lymphoma and adult T-cell lymphoma patients. High-dose methotrexate and intrathecal chemotherapy injection for the nervous lesions were ineffective, and the patients died. Neurolymphomatosis of the recurrent nerve is an emergent and difficult complication and should be suspected when sudden onset of aphasia, hoarseness or shortness of breath is found in refractory lymphoma patients.
The coexistence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with Behçet's disease (BD) is rare. The optimum treatment for AML-associated BD has not been established. We herein report a patient with BD who developed AML with myelodysplasia-related changes. Induction chemotherapy caused complete remission of the AML but worsened the BD. Thereafter, AML was treated with azacitidine. The BD was steroid-dependent. Tacrolimus was added, which improved the BD. The patient underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and remains in complete remission for both diseases. Allogeneic HSCT was found to be a potent therapeutic option for AML-associated BD. In addition, azacitidine and tacrolimus were shown to be a suitable bridging regimen before HSCT.
An acquired formation of inhibitors to coagulation factors is a rare type of coagulopathy. The development of inhibitors for multiple coagulation factors has never been reported. A 75-year-old Japanese female underwent interventional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Five days after the last intervention, her prothrombin time decreased to 10%, and her activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) lengthened to 265.1 sec. The activities for coagulation factors showed significantly reduced activities (<10%) of factors V, IX, and XII. A cross-mixing test demonstrated an inhibitor pattern, and inhibitory antibodies against factors V, IX, and XII were detected. We discuss our patient's etiology and pathogenesis.
A 37-year-old woman with extranodal marginal-zone lymphoma was admitted with a fever, hemiplegia, and severe dyspnea after chemotherapy. Catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (CAPS) was suspected based on the histopathological confirmation of small-pulmonary vessel occlusion, evidence of the involvement of three organs, and elevated lupus anticoagulant assay results in a short time span. The patient responded to the initial treatment. One month later, the CAPS and lymphoma relapsed, and the patient underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Complete remission of the lymphoma has been successfully maintained, and the condition of the patient has remained stable for two years with no further evidence of thrombosis.
A 64-year-old woman was diagnosed to have refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) including an increased number of sideroblasts in the bone marrow (BM). Computed tomography (CT) revealed a presacral mass which showed iso- or high-intensity signals according to T1-weighted and hypo-intensity signals on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT-guided biopsy revealed the presence of hematopoietic tissue with features that correlated with the BM findings. While the formation of extramedullary hematopoiesis in the presacral area is rare, it is important to differentiate it from other parasacral tumors even though such differentiation is often difficult. This patient demonstrated atypical MRI signals possibly due to an increase in the cellular iron content of the erythroid precursors.
The use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has rarely been reported. We herein report a set of PET images in a 63-year-old patient with PML. In PML lesions, the uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, 11C-methionine, 11C-flumazenil, and [methyl-11C]4′-thiothymidine was decreased, increased, decreased, and unchanged, respectively. These results suggest that glucose metabolism decreased, protein synthesis increased, neuronal integrity decreased, and the DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation of host cells were not activated in PML lesions. These results may reflect very little infiltration by inflammatory cells and active infection with JC virus in this case.
Acute progressive weakness in bulbar, neck and limbs is included in several differential diagnoses, including the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Patients with the PCB variant of GBS are reported to have localized diagnostic cervical spinal nerve abnormalities that can be examined by nerve ultrasonography (NUS) and magnetic resonance neurography (MRN). We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man with the PCB variant of GBS. Although the nerve conduction study (NCS) findings were indirect indicators for an early diagnosis, the combination of NCS and NUS was a useful complementary measure that facilitated an early diagnosis. MRN did not show any apparent diagnostic abnormalities. After early treatment, the patient was discharged and returned home.
The current standard diagnostic approach for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is to perform a DNA test to identify the presence of the JC virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 32-year-old woman with a 5-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus developed right hemiplegia and motor aphasia. MRI revealed a large white matter lesion in the left frontal lobe. JC virus DNA was undetectable in the CSF, but a brain biopsy showed typical histopathology and a high DNA load of the JC virus. The patient was treated with mefloquine and mirtazapine, and is currently alive at 24 months after onset. An early brain biopsy may therefore be important for making a timely diagnosis of PML.
We report a case of cerebral venous thrombosis related to the ingestion of tadalafil. A 45-year-old man presented with posterior headache and was diagnosed with tension headache. Five days later, he was transported to our hospital via ambulance due to a tonic-clonic seizure. Head MRI showed cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). He confessed to having recently taken a large doses of tadalafil. His anti-cardiolipin antibody and anti-caldiolipin-β2-glycoprotein-I complex antibody levels were elevated. Our case suggests the possibility that tadalafil is related to both cardiovascular complications and CVT in patients with hypercoagulability. Patients with conditions associated with hypercoagulability, including antiphospholipid syndrome may be better advised to avoid the use of tadalafil.
We report a case of reactive arthritis (ReA) triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica enteritis. A 24-year-old Japanese man developed polyarthritis in the lower limbs. Two weeks prior to these symptoms, he noted diarrhea, right lower abdominal pain and a fever. Y. enterocolitica was not isolated from a stool culture; however, he was diagnosed with ReA based on the colonoscopic findings of a high anti-Y. enterocolitica antibody titer and HLA-B27 antigen positivity. Following treatment with methotrexate and steroids, his arthritis improved. This is the first reported Japanese case of ReA in the English literature after a gastrointestinal infection caused by Y. enterocolitica.
A 72-year-old man presented with persistent oligoarthritis and positive results for rheumatoid factor and was suspected of having rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) findings were not consistent with those of typical RA. He had undergone surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome, which allowed both histopathological and microbiological examinations to be performed. A synovial tissue culture was positive for Sporothrix schenckii, and he was diagnosed with sporotrichal tenosynovitis. He received anti-fungal therapy, and the sporotrichal tenosynovitis resolved. This case suggests that MSUS is a useful modality, and sporotrichal tenosynovitis, though rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of RA.
Thrombocytopenia, Anasarca, Fever, Reticulin fibrosis/Renal failure, and Organomegaly (TAFRO) syndrome is a recently described systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis/renal failure, and organomegaly. It has an acute or subacute onset of unknown etiology, although some pathological features resemble those of multicentric Castleman disease. We here report two cases of TAFRO syndrome. The symptoms and pathological findings in these cases met the 2015 diagnostic criteria. Our cases showed high serum procalcitonin levels, suggesting bacterial infection as an onset trigger. In addition, Case 1 is the first case complicated with adrenal hemorrhaging. Case 2 is the second case of tocilizumab-resistant TAFRO syndrome successfully treated with rituximab.
Mycobacterium abscessus infection tends to occur in patients with an advanced immunocompromised status. We encountered a case of intractable cutaneous M. abscessus infection that developed in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) during maintenance therapy. A 28-year-old woman developed a fever and redness of the skin on her buttocks. General antibacterial therapy was ineffective, and acid-fast bacteria were detected in the biopsy that was conducted to differentiate the dermal symptoms of SLE. The clinical findings eventually improved; however, the symptoms recurred multiple times during treatment. Despite recent advances in SLE treatment, M. abscessus infection remains a considerable complication of SLE.
We present a case of cryptococcosis with adrenal insufficiency and meningitis in a healthy host without any risk factors. Antifungal therapy did not reduce the cryptococcal antigen titers of the cerebrospinal fluid and serum or the bilateral adrenal gland enlargement. It was suggested that the adrenal glands were the focus of persistent fungemia. Removal of both adrenal glands brought about a response to antifungal therapy. We conclude that if antifungal therapy is ineffective, bilateral adrenalectomy is an effective measure for treatment of such patients. Cryptococcosis is a possible cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in immunocompetent patients.