Objective Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is a common finding in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and may cause both acute and chronic bleeding. A number of risk factors for PHG have been identified. The present study explored the characteristics of Japanese patients with LC who develop PHG.
Methods Clinical findings (age, sex, etiology, the presence of esophageal varices, splenomegaly and severity of LC), laboratory data, and whether or not atrophic gastritis was found on endoscopy were retrospectively reviewed in patients with LC who had undergone esophagogastroduodenoscopy. PHG was endoscopically graded as absent, mild, or severe.
Results Of 262 patients with LC (mean age, 69 years old; 145 men), 158 had no PHG, 41 had mild PHG, and 63 had severe PHG. In a univariate analysis, a younger age, male sex, non-viral etiology, absence of atrophic gastritis, presence of esophageal varices, splenomegaly, severe LC, low platelet count, and low hemoglobin concentration were associated with PHG. A multivariate analysis showed a significant association of PHG with the absence of atrophic gastritis (p<0.048), presence of esophageal varices (p<0.001), non-viral etiology (p<0.033), splenomegaly (p<0.048), and severe LC (p<0.005). There were no cases of massive bleeding from PHG during follow-up.
Conclusion Esophageal varices, splenomegaly, severe liver cirrhosis, the absence of atrophic gastritis, and etiology were found to be risk factors for PHG in Japanese patients.
Objective Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is defined as an autoimmune disease presenting with fibrosis of various organs and vascular endothelial damage. Vascular lesions, including small-bowel angioectasias, are also frequently detected in SSc patients. Polidocanol injection (PDI) is a safe and effective hemostatic treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated the outcomes of PDI for small-bowel angioectasia in SSc patients.
Methods We retrospectively evaluated 65 consecutive SSc patients (61 women; mean age, 64.3 years old) who underwent capsule endoscopy (CE) and/or double-balloon endoscopy at Hiroshima University Hospital between April 2012 and December 2019.
Patients Patients were stratified according to the presence of small-bowel angioectasia. Among patients who underwent CE during the same period, those with small-bowel angioectasia without concomitant diseases were compared with SSc patients with small-bowel angioectasia. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics, treatment outcomes, and the incidence of metachronous small-bowel angioectasia after PDI were evaluated.
Results SSc patients with small-bowel angioectasia exhibited significantly lower hemoglobin levels and a significantly higher incidence of skin telangiectasia than those without small-bowel angioectasia. On a multivariate analysis of the presence of small-bowel angioectasia, anemia and skin telangiectasia were significant independent factors. SSc patients with small-bowel angioectasia included a higher proportion of women and exhibited a significantly higher incidence of metachronous small-bowel angioectasia than X. The characteristics of small-bowel angioectasia and outcomes of PDI were not significantly different between the two groups. No post-treatment rebleeding cases or adverse events were noted.
Conclusion CE should be performed for SSc patients with anemia and/or skin telangiectasia. PDI is effective for SSc patients with small-bowel angioectasia.
Objective Acute pulmonary lesions (APLs), defined as an acute infiltrate or nodular lung field, are a major complication in patients with haematological diseases. Recently, endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide-sheath (EBUS-GS) was established as a useful technique for diagnosing pulmonary lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EBUS-GS for managing APLs in patients with haematological diseases.
Methods Our single-centre, retrospective, observational, single-arm, descriptive study enrolled 22 consecutive adult (>20-year-old) patients with haematological diseases and concomitant APL who underwent EBUS-GS between January 2011 and June 2016 at Kameda Medical Center, Chiba, Japan. The primary endpoint was the contribution of EBUS-GS to clinical decision-making. Secondary endpoints were an adequate tissue collection rate, diagnostic yield, complication rate, and 30-day mortality.
Results The median patient age was 70 years old, and 63.6% were men. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the most frequent underlying disease, accounting for 54.5% of patients. The contribution of EBUS-GS to clinical decision-making was recognised in 11 (50.0%) patients. Adequate tissue collection was achieved in 21 (95.5%) patients. The aetiology of the APL was identified in 9 (40.9%) patients. No complications, including severe haemorrhaging and pneumothorax, were observed in any patients, and the 30-day mortality rate was 0%.
Conclusion EBUS-GS may be a suitable diagnostic option for APL in patients with haematological diseases. Further larger-scale and randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm our results.
Objective Leg muscle strength (LMS) is decreased in early-stage Parkinson disease (PD) patients and is associated with slower walking and falls. However, LMS in advanced PD has not been well investigated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LMS in advanced PD patients and its effects on gait performance, activities of daily living, and the cognitive function.
Methods The medical records of 132 patients with idiopathic advanced PD [Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stages 3 and 4] with a mean disease duration of 9.6 years were retrospectively reviewed. Leg extensor muscle strength of the patients was measured using a Strength Ergo 240. The associations between the LMS and gait performance, Barthel index, H&Y stage, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score were analyzed.
Results A Spearman's correlation analysis showed that LMS was correlated with the sex, age, age of disease onset, H&Y stage, Barthel index, MMSE score, and gait parameters. A multivariable linear regression analysis for identifying predictors of LMS showed that the gait velocity (β=0.377), Barthel index (β=0.281), sex (β=-0.187), and disease duration (β=-0.155) were significant. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for discriminating between H&Y stage 3 and 4 was performed for LMS; the area under the curve was 0.774 (95% confidence interval=0.696-0.851).
Conclusions LMS was strongly associated with multiple domains of clinical characteristics, especially gait velocity and the Barthel index. Our study also suggested that LMS can be a predictor of PD progression.
Objective We assessed the relationship between the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, which is often increased with biliary obstruction and bone metastasis, and active cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.
Methods Serum alkaline phosphatase levels in patients with cryptogenic stroke sampled upon admission were measured using the Japan Society of Clinical Chemistry method used in Japan. Active cancer was defined as a new diagnosis, treatment, progression, or recurrence within six months before admission or metastatic cancer. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the relationship between serum alkaline phosphatase and active cancer in these patients.
Results Among the 249 patients classified as having cryptogenic stroke, 64 had active cancer. Patients with cryptogenic stroke with active cancer had significantly higher serum alkaline phosphatase levels (486±497 vs. 259±88.2 U/L; p<0.001) than those without cancer. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that serum alkaline phosphatase levels ≥286 U/L were associated with cryptogenic stroke with active cancer [odds ratio (OR), 2.669, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.291-5.517; p=0.008] independent of age ≤70 years old (OR, 3.303, 95% CI, 1.569-6.994; p=0.002), male sex (OR, 0.806, 95% CI, 0.380-1.710; p=0.573), and serum D-dimer levels ≥2.6 μg/mL (OR, 18.78, 95% CI, 8.130-43.40; p<0.001).
Conclusion In patients with cryptogenic stroke, high serum alkaline phosphatase levels may be related to active cancer.
Objective To evaluate the change in the prevalence of burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic among internists and primary care physicians in Japan, and to identify factors associated with the exacerbation of burnout among these populations during this period.
Methods This was a cross-sectional study based on two web-based surveys conducted in January 2020 (before the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic) and June 2020 (during the pandemic). The participants were internists and primary care physicians of the Japanese Chapter of the American College of Physicians. The main outcome was the change in the prevalence of burnout between before and during the "first wave" of the pandemic. We also examined factors associated with the exacerbation of burnout during this period.
Results Among the 283 respondents in the first survey and 322 in the second survey, 98 (34.6%) and 111 (34.5%) reported symptoms of burnout, respectively. In June 2020, 82 respondents (25.5%) reported that their level of burnout exacerbated compared to January 2020. Only the experience of self-quarantine was associated with the exacerbation of burnout [odds ratio (OR) 3.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49-6.50; p=0.002], while being a woman, being a resident physician, and an experience of having worked in a prefecture under a state of emergency were not.
Conclusions No marked change in the prevalence of burnout among internists and primary care physicians in Japan was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic as a whole. However, self-quarantine was associated with the exacerbation of the burnout level.
Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors can lead to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhaging, which is usually caused by dimpling or ulceration on the tumor surface. While rare, pedunculated gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors outside the stomach can present as a huge mass with delayed complaints. We herein report an unusual hemorrhaging mimicking a rupture of solitary gastric varices due to a pedunculated gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor. In this case, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) was essential for tumor detection. An endoscopic investigation revealed dilated, aberrant veins and arteries in the submucosa of this tumor, recognized as solitary gastric varices.
Disseminated carcinomatosis of the bone marrow (DCBM) is often accompanied by disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and has a poor prognosis. DCBM develops most frequently in gastric cancer and is rarely associated with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. A 41-year-old man was incidentally found to have DIC on his regular visit for ulcerative colitis and was diagnosed with DCBM with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. He received intensive care, including chemotherapy, but died suddenly from hyperkalemia, possibly due to tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). The autopsy showed the periductal infiltrating type of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and tumor necrosis, possibly due to chemotherapy, indicating the effectiveness of chemotherapy for DCBM with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
A lotus root-like appearance on blood vessels is a rare abnormality. The multiple channels within arteries may represent the recanalization or neovascularization of the thrombus. This abnormality is most frequently found in coronary arteries. A 39-year-old woman had a thrombus-like structure in the external iliac artery. We subsequently performed an endovascular treatment six months later due to intermittent claudication. A lotus root-like appearance was found on intravascular ultrasound. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a case of lotus root-like appearance in lower-extremity arteries.
Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is considered a very rare tumor with a poor prognosis. We herein report two cases of PAS that were diagnosed by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). In both cases, PET was an effective option for diagnosing tumors, and surgical resection was a valid treatment for these diseases. If a pulmonary artery tumor is suspected, PET/CT is useful for diagnosing PAS and very helpful for choosing the surgical treatment strategy.
A 33-year-old marathon runner presented with anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery after being admitted for cardiac arrest. Surgical re-implantation of the right coronary artery to the aortic root to re-establish right coronary ostial circulation was successful. The patient resumed exercise and required no further medical therapy.
Pasireotide, which has a high affinity for somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 5, has attracted attention as a new treatment for refractory Cushing's disease. The patient was a 28-year-old man. He had refractory Cushing's disease and underwent multiple surgeries, radiotherapy, and medication therapy. An examination of the adenoma by immunohistochemistry revealed a low SSTR5 expression. An USP8 mutation was not detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Although we administered pasireotide, it was ineffective. While a further investigation is necessary, the analysis of SSTR5 expression may support the prediction of the efficiency of pasireotide for Cushing's disease. We report this case as a useful reference when considering whether or not to use pasireotide for refractory corticotroph adenomas.
In the first case, a 60-year-old man who was using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), developed recurrent hypoglycemia due to insulin antibodies. This is the first report of such a case using CSII. In the second case, a 70-year-old man was follow-up case who developed hypoglycemia while using human insulin. In both cases, the hypoglycemia subsided after switching to multiple daily insulin injection and/or insulin preparation. The results of Scatchard analyses of the two cases were similar to those of cases of insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) that improved after recovery from hypoglycemia.The clinical characteristics and Scatchard analysis data were essentially the same as those for IAS, except for the presence of insulin administration.
A 51-year-old Japanese man who experienced colon cancer recurrence following primary and metastatic lesion resection was hospitalized due to facial cellulitis with febrile neutropenia and purpura on his lower extremities after chemotherapy. It was complicated by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He was diagnosed with immunoglobulin A (IgA)-dominant endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis based on kidney histology. His glomeruli were positive for the nephritis-associated plasmin receptor, plasmin activity and galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1). A skin biopsy immunofluorescence study revealed IgA deposition within perivascular regions but no Gd-IgA1 deposition. The final diagnosis was IgA-dominant infection-related glomerulonephritis (IRGN). The patient's renal function returned to normal after receiving immunosuppressive therapy that consisted of a glucocorticoid and a cyclophosphamide. Immunosuppressive therapy should be considered in cases of IRGN if the patient's infection is completely under control.
Amelanotic melanoma is a rare type of melanoma that shows little or no melanin pigmentation. When tumor lesions are not detected in cutaneous sites, the presence of melanin is the hallmark sign of malignant melanoma. We herein report a case of amelanotic melanoma with a BRAF V600E mutation mimicking primary lung cancer that was finally diagnosed on an autopsy. The current case suggests important caveats for the differential diagnosis of patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive poorly differentiated lung tumors. In terms of the pathological diagnosis, routine immunohistochemical staining may be useful, especially in patients with a poorly differentiated lung tumor without TTF-1 expression.
A 67-year-old man with a history of esophageal cancer resection was referred to our hospital because of nausea and appetite loss. Laboratory findings showed severe hyponatremia and were compatible with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a nodule measuring 13 mm in the lower lobe of the right lung. Right thoracotomy was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was small-cell lung cancer (T1bN0M0; Stage 1b). Although SIADH is frequently associated with small-cell lung cancer, it is extremely rare as the initial clinical feature in stage I small-cell lung cancer.
Dendriform pulmonary ossification is a rare condition characterized by branching bony spicules. A 33-year-old man was clinically considered to have sarcoidosis. At 53 years old, another attending physician performed a detailed evaluation. Computed tomography (CT) showed a fine nodular pattern with foci of calcifications and pulmonary function testing showed peripheral airway obstruction. We performed a surgical biopsy. A histological examination revealed dendriform pulmonary ossification. After surgery, CT showed progression of some lesions; the pulmonary function had also decreased slightly. Since dendriform pulmonary ossification might be a progressive disease, we should perform long-term follow-up.
A 68-year-old woman was admitted with a persistent cough and dyspnea that had persisted for 4 months prior. Chest computed tomography revealed a tumor protruding from the membranous portion of the trachea. She underwent tumor resection via rigid and flexible bronchoscopy to relieve the symptoms and obtain a diagnosis. After the procedure, she was diagnosed with tracheal liposarcoma. Three months after the procedure, she underwent complete surgical tumor resection. Liposarcoma is a mesenchymal tumor that usually develops in the extremities and the retroperitoneum. Tracheal liposarcoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case.
A 70-year-old woman with bilateral pleural effusion and respiratory failure was admitted to our hospital. Nephrotic syndrome due to minimal change disease had been diagnosed four months before admission. Because blood tests and a pleural fluid analysis did not reveal the etiology of her condition, we performed a video-assisted thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. No specific thoracoscopic findings were noted. The pathological findings revealed an increase in immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive cells; IgG4-related pleuritis was diagnosed. Her pleuritis improved with oral corticosteroid therapy. A further investigation was performed on previous kidney samples; however, the etiology of the nephrotic syndrome was not IgG4-related disease but minimal change disease.
A 77-year-old woman presented with systemic lymphadenopathy and bilateral pleural effusion. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) was diagnosed based on the results of a lymph node biopsy. AITL cells expressed the aberrant antigen of CD56. The bilateral pleural effusion was attributed to chylothorax, not the infiltration of lymphoma cells into the pleura, as determined by the pleural fluid analysis. We therefore diagnosed her with CD56-positive AITL complicated by chylothorax. She achieved complete remission by multidrug chemotherapy. AITL is commonly complicated by pleural effusion, but rarely by chylothorax. This is the first case of CD56-positive AITL complicated by chylothorax.
Hypercoagulability associated with malignant tumors causes thrombosis, termed Trousseau's syndrome, but is rarely associated with benign gynecological tumors, such as myoma and adenomyosis. We herein report a 47-year-old Japanese woman with uterine adenomyosis who developed multiple cerebral infarcts during menstruation. Edoxaban was initially used for prevention but failed to prevent recurrence of thrombosis. However, hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy resulted in the successful prevention of recurrence of cerebral infarct for five years without antiplatelet or anticoagulant agents. In our patient, the surgical removal of adenomyosis was highly effective for preventing thrombosis in a patient with adenomyosis.
Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been developed and administered worldwide. There have been reports of neurological adverse events following immunization (AEFIs). We herein report a case of refractory longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in a 75-year-old Japanese man following the first dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. The patient developed total sensory loss below the umbilicus and complete paralysis in both legs. Although he was treated with steroid therapy and plasma exchange, his recovery was limited, and severe sequelae remained. Further studies, including large epidemiological studies, are required to understand the association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and neurological AEFI.
TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder resembling multicentric Castleman disease; it is characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, a fever, reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly. Involvement of the adrenal glands, including adrenal infarction, hemorrhaging, and adrenomegaly, has recently been reported in several cases and been considered a characteristic early-stage symptom. We herein report a case of TAFRO syndrome initially presenting with bilateral adrenal infarctions and review the literature on TAFRO syndrome related to adrenal involvement. This case suggests that adrenal abnormalities as an early clinical feature of TAFRO syndrome may be useful for the early diagnosis.
We herein report the case of an 80-year-old Japanese woman who presented to our hospital with bilateral pain in the shoulders and hips lasting for a month since 2 days after the second dose of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Her physical findings, laboratory data, and ultrasonographic findings of bilateral biceps tenosynovitis and lateral subacromial bursitis were consistent with a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). She was successfully treated with oral prednisolone 15 mg/day. Although a causal relationship could not be definitively confirmed, PMR should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of persistent myalgia after administration of the BNT162b2 vaccine.
The use of biologic agents has enabled control of severe asthma, but there is a risk that eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) may be masked in some cases. We herein report a 71-year-old man who was administered dupilumab for 2 years to stabilize his asthma symptoms. A few months after discontinuation of dupilumab administration, an increase in the eosinophil count in peripheral blood, leg pain, and a rash appeared. Based on pathology, he was diagnosed with EGPA. EGPA in this case was considered to have become apparent due to the discontinuation of dupilumab administration.