Objective This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of short segment Barrett's esophagus (SSBE) using endoscopic observations with linked color imaging (LCI). In addition, the relationship between the presence of Barrett's epithelium (BE) and the status of H. pylori infection was investigated.
Methods The study subjects were 3,353 individuals (2,186 men, 1,167 women; mean age 55.2±9.4 years old) whose status of H. pylori infection had been determined. An endoscopic observation using LCI was performed to examine the distal margin of palisade vessels and confirm the area of BE. The prevalence of BE ≥5 mm in length was investigated.
Results BE was diagnosed in 1,884 (56.2%) subjects, with lengths of <10, 10-19, 20-29, and ≥30 mm found in 1,005, 851, 27, and 1, respectively. Its prevalence in H. pylori-negative, H. pylori-positive, and post-eradicated subjects was 41.7%, 64.4%, and 69.9%, respectively (p<0.001). The duration since successful eradication of H. pylori did not affect the prevalence of BE. The degree of gastric mucosal atrophy was higher in cases with BE (p<0.001), although negativity for H. pylori infection and mild gastric mucosal atrophy were significant factors for the development of longer BE.
Conclusion A high prevalence of SSBE was noted when LCI was used to determine the area of BE, as the distal end of the palisade vessels was easily visualized. Negativity for H. pylori infection and mild gastric mucosal atrophy were not correlated with SSBE prevalence.
Objective Hypozincemia is a decrease in the serum zinc level of patients with hepatitis C and often requires zinc supplementation to improve the hepatic function. Our previous study showed the efficacy of direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) treatment on serum zinc levels in patients with hepatitis C without zinc supplementation. In this study, we aimed to prospectively examine factors related to the improvement of serum zinc levels of patents with hepatitis C with DAA treatment.
Methods Fifty-three patients with hepatitis C treated with DAAs between March 2018 and February 2019 at a university medical center were divided into two groups based on their initial serum level: the zinc deficiency group (n=43, <80 μg/dL) and the normal zinc group (n=10, ≥80 μg/dL). Their serum zinc levels and clinical parameters were measured before DAA treatment, at the end of treatment and 12 weeks post-treatment.
Results All 53 patients achieved a sustained viral response to DAAs at the end of treatment and at follow-up. There was a significant increase in the serum zinc level from baseline to follow-up in the zinc deficiency group but not in the normal zinc group. The change in serum albumin was the only factor contributing to the observed increase in serum zinc levels by a multiple regression analysis.
Conclusion DAA treatment in patients with hepatitis C improved hypozincemia due to the restored function of serum albumin, which binds to about 60% of serum zinc, upon the amelioration of the hepatitis C infection.
Objective Although a number of studies have shown that both short and long sleep durations were associated with the risk of metabolic disorders related to obesity, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, we analyzed the association of sleep duration with metabolic, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods The subjects were 279 patients with type 2 diabetes 63 (52-70) years old (median and interquartile range) with a body mass index of 25.0 (22.2-28.3) kg/m2 and HbA1c levels of 8.7% (7.6-10.3%). Patients with advanced complications were excluded from the study. Diets were evaluated by registered dietitians using a software program. Body composition was assessed by the multifrequency bioelectrical impedance method.
Results The mean self-reported nightly sleep duration was 6.4 hours with no marked gender difference. Sleep duration was inversely correlated with the HbA1c levels, total energy intake, and intakes of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The body fat ratio and skeletal muscle mass were correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with sleep duration. When the subjects were divided into three groups based on sleep duration, the intakes of total energy, carbohydrates, and fat tended to be high in those with <5.5 hours of sleep, and the percentage of patients who had habitual physical activities was lower in those with >7 hours of sleep.
Conclusion The observation that sleep duration is distinctly associated with excessive eating and a sedentary lifestyle may provide a basis for effective lifestyle management of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Objective Despite advances in medicine, aortic diseases (ADs), such as aneurysm rupture and aortic dissection, remain fatal and carry extremely high mortality rates. Due to its low frequency, the risk of developing AD has not yet been fully elucidated. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. The aim of the present study was to examine whether or not CKD is a risk for AD-related mortality in the general population.
Methods We used a nationwide database of 554,442 subjects (40-75 years old) who participated in the annual "Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan" checkup between 2008 and 2013.
Results There were 131 aortic aneurysm and dissection deaths during the follow-up period of 2,123,512 person-years. A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that subjects with CKD had a higher rate of AD-related deaths than those without it. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis demonstrated that CKD was an independent risk factor for AD-related death in the general population after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. The addition of CKD to cardiovascular risk factors significantly improved the C, net reclassification, and integrated discrimination indexes.
Conclusion CKD is an additional risk for AD-related death, suggesting that CKD may be a target for the prevention and early identification of subjects at high risk for AD-related death in the general population.
Objective For patients with Gaucher disease (GD), a rare, inherited lysosomal storage disease, obtaining a definitive diagnosis is currently time-consuming and costly. A simplified screening method to measure the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) activity using dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper has recently been developed. Using this newly developed screening method, we evaluated real-world GD screening in patients suspected of having GD.
Methods This multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study with a diagnostic intervention component evaluated real-world screening in patients suspected of having GD based on their clinical symptoms and a platelet count <120,000/μL. The endpoint was the number of patients with low GBA activity determined using DBS.
Results In 994 patients who underwent initial DBS screening, 77 had low GBA activity. The assay was not repeated in 1 patient who was diagnosed as having a high possibility of GD due to clinical symptoms, and a further 21 patients completed the study without undergoing the second assay. Of the remaining 55 patients who had 2 DBS assays performed, 11 had a low GBA activity in both assays. Overall, DBS screening identified 12 (1.2%) patients with a low GBA activity, a proportion consistent with prior screening studies.
Conclusion These results suggest that the simplified DBS method was less burdensome to patients, was easily utilized by many physicians, and could be a useful first-tier screening assay for GD prior to initiating burdensome genetic testing.
Objective Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) has been regarded as a curable disease when treated appropriately, especially in younger patients, and ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) has been regarded as the standard regimen. However, a relatively poor prognosis has been reported in older patients with CHL, and the efficacy and tolerability of the ABVD regimen has not been fully elucidated. We retrospectively investigated the outcomes in patients with CHL treated with ABVD at our institute.
Methods Twenty-five patients were evaluated; 14 were ≤60 years of age, and 11 were >60 years of age (older group).
Results The ABVD doses were reduced in all patients in the older group; the median average relative dose intensity was 0.58. In the older group, the 5-year overall survival (OS) and median OS were 100% and not reached, respectively, for patients with early-stage CHL and 66.7% and not reached, respectively, for those with advanced-stage CHL. No patients died of CHL, and only one treatment-related death was observed in the older group.
Conclusion ABVD with dose attenuation may represent a feasible and effective strategy for the treatment of older patients with CHL in clinical practice, particularly in those with early-stage disease, although the optimal degree of attenuation remains unclear.
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) initially presents with hematuria and hydronephrosis. We report a case of UTUC presenting with initial findings of duodenal stenosis before the appearance of hydronephrosis. A 59-year-old man presented with upper abdominal symptoms on his initial visit. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed circumferential stenosis at the descending part of the duodenum. However, the underlying cause of duodenal stenosis was unknown as repeated histopathological examinations of endoscopic biopsy specimens showed no specific findings. We then performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the thickened duodenal wall, and successfully diagnosed duodenal metastasis of UTUC. EUS-FNA is an effective diagnostic method in cases in which the cause of duodenal stenosis is unknown.
Aseptic abscesses (AAs) are extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD-associated AAs are rare in Japan. We treated a 45-year-old man with ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated AAs. During remission, multiple progressive abscesses were detected in the spleen; he underwent splenectomy because an infectious disease was suspected. Although his condition improved temporarily after splenectomy, a large liver abscess was noted, and a diagnosis of UC-associated AAs was made. Granulocytapheresis (GCAP) and infliximab (IFX) administration resolved the abscess. This is the first reported case of UC-associated AAs in a Japanese patient treated by splenectomy, GCAP, and IFX.
Rituximab (RTX) is effective for treating cancer, but reports of RTX-associated enterocolitis are limited. We herein report the case of a 65-year-old man who developed RTX-induced ileocolitis. He was diagnosed with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) and treated with RTX. He complained of bloody diarrhea after RTX. Mucosal inflammation on colonoscopy indicated RTX-induced ileocolitis. He was treated with corticosteroids, and his symptoms improved. We reviewed the RTX-associated gastrointestinal adverse events and classified the features into ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, microscopic colitis, and ileocolitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a Japanese patient who developed RTX-induced ileocolitis.
We herein report a unique form of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) spreading along the main pancreatic duct (MPD). A 70-year-old man was referred for a small lesion at the pancreatic neck, accompanying an adjacent cyst and dilated upstream MPD. Four years earlier, health checkup images had shown a pancreatic cyst but no mass lesion. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a contrast-enhanced, tumorous lesion, mainly occupying the MPD. With a preoperative diagnosis of ductal neoplasms mainly spreading in the MPD, Whipple's resection was performed. The resected specimens showed MPD periductitis with IgG4-related pathology, indicating type 1 AIP. Clinicians should practice caution concerning the various AIP forms.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be eliminated by direct-acting antivirals in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Although viral clearance in decompensated liver cirrhosis leads to improvement of the liver function and quality of life, changes in the skeletal muscle mass after sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis have not been reported. We present the first report of skeletal muscle mass improvement with the achievement of SVR for HCV in a 76-year-old woman with decompensated liver cirrhosis. After achieving SVR through ledipasvir/sofosbuvir treatment, the patient showed an improvement in her liver function and an increase in her skeletal muscle mass.
Unilateral pulmonary edema (UPE) is a rare entity and is usually associated with severe mitral regurgitation and more frequently occurs in the right lung. We herein report a case of unilateral left pulmonary edema caused by external compression of the right pulmonary artery and left pulmonary vein caused by the presence of hematoma due to type A acute aortic dissection (AAD), resulting in asymmetrically increased inflow and decreased outflow in the left pulmonary circulation. Physicians caring for patients with UPE should be aware that AAD leading to the external compression of the heart may be a possible underlying mechanism.
Keishibukuryogan is a Kampo medicine that induces vasodilation and improves the blood flow velocity in subcutaneous blood vessels. We herein report two cases in which keishibukuryogan completely diminished subcutaneous hematoma after cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemaker implantation and defibrillator battery replacement within a month. Keishibukuryogan can be a good option for treating or preventing subcutaneous hematoma after surgical procedures for devices.
Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, occasionally causing bacteremia. We herein report the case of an 80-year-old man who presented with bacteremia and pre-renal acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to diarrhea caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella. Despite AKI improvement on fluid administration, some serological abnormalities, such as hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypouricemia, and abnormal urinary findings emerged, including renal glycosuria and aminoaciduria. Fractional excretion of phosphate and uric acid was increased, suggesting that the serological and urinary abnormalities may have arisen from Fanconi syndrome. Physicians should consider acquired Fanconi syndrome when patients with nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia present with electrolyte disorders.
A 28-year-old woman was admitted during the eighth week of her pregnancy because her clinical course was consistent with rapid progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (anti-GBM Ab) and myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) were positive, and the anti-GBM Ab titer being extremely high. She was treated with hemodialysis, plasma exchange and prednisolone. She survived the illness; however, neither the fetus nor her kidney function could be rescued. She had human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1*1502:01, which differs from the DRB1*1501 associated with anti-GBM GN. When patients have particular symptoms, we should check the urine and serum creatinine to exclude RPGN, even in cases of pregnancy.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is mostly observed in patients with a history of asbestos exposure. Although other causes are rare, there are several reports of MPM induced by therapeutic radiation, mainly in Europe and North America. However, no such case has been reported in Japan. We herein report a 50-year-old Japanese woman who developed MPM 25 years after thoracic radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient had no history of exposure to asbestos; therefore, her history of radiation therapy was considered to be the cause of MPM. Clinicians should consider secondary MPM in patients with a history of thoracic radiation therapy.
A 46-year-old woman with uveitis was referred to our respiratory diseases department in July 2018. Her medical history included transient bilateral hilar mediastinal lymphadenopathy (BHL) and multiple pulmonary nodules in May 2013 during pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection. Five years post-treatment, chest X-ray revealed BHL and nodular recurrence. A biopsy of the subcutaneous buttock nodules revealed scattered non-caseating epithelioid granulomas with positive PAB immunohistochemical staining. This seem to be the first report of Propionibacterium acnes-associated sarcoidosis possibly initially triggered by interferon-alpha therapy. Understanding the mechanisms underlying interferon-triggered P. acnes-associated sarcoidosis may clarify the sarcoidosis immunopathogenesis.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease that may be complicated by progressive and potentially fatal interstitial pneumonia. We herein report a 64-year-old woman with interstitial pneumonia associated with HPS type 4 whom we treated with nintedanib after pirfenidone proved ineffective. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of nintedanib being used to treat a patient with HPS type 4. There is a need for clinical trials of antifibrotic agents, including nintedanib, pirfenidone, and new therapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action in these patients.
An 81-year-old man with a history of gingival bleeding presented with a fever, headache, and drowsiness. His mouth and full dentures were unsanitary. Laboratory tests revealed Streptococcus oralis meningitis caused by odontogenic bacteremia. We reviewed eight reported cases, including the present case, because S. oralis meningitis is rare. Our review indicated that S. oralis meningitis needs to be considered when encountering cases of a fever, disturbance of consciousness, and headache with episodes of possible odontogenic bacteremia.
The legalization of recreational marijuana in some countries has been accompanied by an increased number of case reports of serious cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. However, there have been few studies describing the detailed clinical course of reversible cerebral vasospasm syndrome (RCVS) associated with marijuana use. We herein report a unique case of recurrent bi-fronto-parietal subcortical (watershed) infarction in the setting of chronic daily marijuana use for several years, with evidence of bilateral anterior cerebral artery vasoconstriction. The quick resolution of symptoms with treatment and the normalization of cerebral vasoconstriction on follow-up imaging lend high certainty to the diagnosis of RCVS.
In triple A (Allgrove) syndrome, motor neuron disease is a co-morbid condition. We herein report a 38-year-old Japanese man with triple A (Allgrove) syndrome and novel tandem mutations: a novel c.881delT deletion mutation and c.835C>T localized to the AAAS gene. A nerve conduction study revealed marked axonal damage in several motor nerves. Tandem mutations in the AAAS gene may be involved in co-morbid motor neuron disease and aberrant electrophysiological findings.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease affecting the general population worldwide. A fever and cough are the common clinical presentations of COVID-19. In most of these patients, computed tomography (CT) shows bilateral peripheral ground-glass opacities. We herein report a case of hemoptysis and lung bulla in the convalescent phase of COVID-19. Based on the clinical observations, alveolar destruction was likely associated with hemoptysis and bulla formation. Therefore, we suggest the follow-up of COVID-19 patients whose clinical parameters indicate alveolar damage, even after their symptoms improve.