Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and limitations of a serum screening system for predicting the risk of gastric cancer.
Methods Serum pepsinogen I (PG I)/pepsinogen II (PG II) and Helicobacter pylori (HP) antibody levels were measured. Subjects were classified into four groupsaccording to their serological status (the ABC classification system). The grade of atrophic gastritis was assessed endoscopically. We evaluated gastric cancer detection rates according to the ABC classification system and the endoscopic grade of atrophy.
Patients Individuals who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in a health check were prospectively enrolled in the present study.
Results According to the ABC classification system, the gastric cancer detection rates in groups A, B, C, and D were 0.07% (4/6,105), 0.5% (8/1,739), 0.8% (16/2,010), and 1.1% (3/281), respectively. The gastric cancer detection rates in subjects with no atrophy, closed type (C-type) atrophy, and open type (O-type) atrophy were 0% (0/4,567), 0.2% (4/2,581), and 0.9% (27/2,987), respectively. In group A (HP(-)/PG(-)), the proportions of subjects with no atrophy, C-type atrophy, and O-type atrophy were 71.2%, 22.8%, and 6.0%, respectively. In group A, the gastric cancer detection rates in subjects with no atrophy, C-type atrophy, and O-type atrophy were 0%, 0.07%, and 0.8%, respectively.
Conclusion The ABC classification system is useful for predicting the risk of gastric cancer. However, this system was limited in group A, which included individuals with a high risk of developing gastric cancer. An endoscopic diagnosis of atrophy may be more effective than the ABC classification system for predicting the risk of gastric cancer.
Objective This study aims to elucidate the association between the clinical characteristics of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC) and quality indicators (QIs) of colonoscopy.
Methods Patients with PCCRC who underwent total colonoscopy (TCS) and were histologically diagnosed with adenocarcinoma within six months to five years of the last examination were included in this study. PCCRC and normally detected cancer (NDC) identified within the same period were compared in terms of their clinicopathological characteristics. Furthermore, the QIs at PCCRC detection were compared to those at the last examination.
Results Patients with PCCRC had a significantly higher rate of colon surgery history than those with NDC (PCCRC: 25/76, 32.9%; NDC: 31/1,437, 2.2%; p<0.001), but the invasion depth in these patients was significantly shallower (PCCRC: ≤Tis/≥T1, 37/39; NDC: ≤Tis/≥T1, 416/1,021; p<0.001). Among patients with PCCRC, the T1b group had significantly more non-polypoid growth (NPG)-type cases than PG-type CRC cases (p=0.018). The adenoma detection rate (ADR) of colonoscopists performing TCS was 30.2-52.8%. Furthermore, the ADR of colonoscopists at the time of PCCRC detection (36.7%±5.9%) was significantly higher than that of colonoscopists who performed the last examination (34.9%±4.4%; p=0.034). The withdrawal time for negative colonoscopy (WT-NC) at detection was significantly longer than that at the last examination (at detection: 494.3±253.8 s; at last examination: 579.5±243.6 s; p=0.010).
Conclusion Given that these PCCRC cases were post-colon surgery cases, had a long WT-NC, and were detected by colonoscopists with a high ADR, most cases showed lesions that were missed during the previous colonoscopy. Caution should be practiced in order to avoid missing flat, NPG-type tumors.
Objective Although the importance of evidence-based optimal medical therapy (OMT) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been recognized, the prescription rate of OMT is not sufficiently high in real-word clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical characteristics of AMI patients who did not receive OMT.
Methods The present study was a retrospective study. OMT was defined as the combination of antiplatelet therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers, and statins at the time of hospital discharge. Non-OMT was defined as the lack of either antiplatelet therapy, ACE inhibitors/ARBs, beta-blockers, or statins.
Results A total of 457 AMI patients were included as the final study population, and 98 patients (22.4%) lacked at least 1 OMT medication. The prescription rates of antiplatelet therapy, ACE inhibitors/ARBs, beta-blockers, and statins were 98.7%, 87.5%, 90.4%, and 96.7%, respectively. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age [per 1-year increase: odds ratio (OR) 1.033, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.007-1.059, p=0.014], hemodialysis (vs. no hemodialysis: OR 2.707, 95% CI 1.082-6.774, p=0.033), estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 without hemodialysis (OR 4.585, 95% CI 1.975-10.644, p<0.001), AMI caused by vasospastic angina (VSA) (vs. no VSA: OR 13.198, 95% CI 1.809-96.260, p=0.011), and asthma (vs. no asthma: OR 7.241, 95% CI 1.716-30.559, p=0.007) were significantly associated with non-OMT, whereas heart rate on admission (per 1-bpm increase: 0.987, 95% CI 0.975-0.999, p=0.033), any PCI (vs. no PCI: OR 0.156, 95% CI 0.066-0.373, p<0.001), and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (vs. NSTEMI: OR 0.384, 95% CI 0.218-0.675, p=0.001) were inversely associated with non-OMT.
Conclusion An advanced age, VSA, bradycardia, asthma, impaired renal function, non-PCI revascularization, and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction were significantly associated with non-OMT.
Objective No research on infective endocarditis (IE) concerning populations of more than 40 patients from all departments of the hospitals they may have visited in Japan has been conducted since 2000. The present study clarified the status quo of IE in a university hospital in Japan.
Methods Data of inpatients of Saga University Hospital with definite IE from September 2007 to August 2017 were retrospectively analyzed.
Patients Records of inpatients with diagnosed IE admitted to any department were scrutinized; those with "definite IE" according to the modified Duke's criteria comprised the study cohort.
Results The study cohort was 74 patients with a median age 66.5 years old. Symptoms within 2 months before the first visit to our hospital included a fever (73.0%), general malaise (33.8%), disturbance of consciousness (24.3%), and dyspnea (24.3%). High-frequency causative microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (28.4%), followed by Streptococcus viridans (18.9%) and Enterococcus spp. (6.8%). The most frequently involved valves were the mitral valve (48.6%), followed by the aortic valve (25.7%) and multiple valves (14.9%). Patients without cardiac murmurs accounted for 37.8%, and those without or with only mild valvular disease accounted for 32.4%. The incidence of complications was 93.2%, and high-frequency complications were central nervous system disorder (60.8%), followed by glomerulonephritis (45.9%) and extracranial embolism (36.5%).
Conclusion The incidences of IE without cardiac murmurs and IE without or with only minor valvular disease were higher than those values previously reported in 2000 in Japan. When IE is suspected clinically, clinicians must check thoroughly for common complications, even in patients without cardiac murmurs or valvular disease.
Objective Baloxavir marboxil is a novel anti-influenza drug reported to have an early antiviral effect, although it also causes the appearance of variant viruses with a reduced susceptibility to baloxavir. In Japan, four neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) have been commonly used to treat patients with influenza. In clinical practice, the differences in the effects of baloxavir and NAIs have not been sufficiently examined. Our objective was to clarify the clinical differences in efficacy between baloxavir and NAIs.
Methods A multicenter, observational study was conducted using postcard questionnaires during the 2018-19 influenza season. Patients who were prescribed anti-influenza drugs were provided postcard questionnaires asking about their background characteristics and their body temperatures. The factors associated with the early alleviation of the fever were analyzed, and the duration of the fever was compared between the baloxavir group and the NAI group.
Results A total of 295 patients with influenza A, ranging in age from 0-91 years old, were enrolled in this study. A multivariate analysis showed that treatment with baloxavir and a duration from the onset to the start of treatment ≥2.5 days were factors contributing to the early alleviation of the fever from the start of treatment. The duration of the fever was significantly shorter in the baloxavir group than in the NAI group (p=0.002).
Conclusion The present survey showed that baloxavir was significantly more effective than NAIs for treating patients with influenza A in clinical practice.
Vasovagal reactions are the most common type of adverse reaction after blood donation; however, there are no reports of ischemic colitis as an adverse reaction after blood donation. A previously healthy 55-year-old woman suffered loss of consciousness at the end of her first plasma donation. She was diagnosed with a vasovagal reaction and received hydration. However, she developed persistent left flank pain and watery diarrhea, followed by bloody diarrhea. Abdominal computed tomography confirmed ischemic colitis. She was asked to fast and was eventually discharged 7 days later. We should consider the possibility of ischemic colitis if patients develop persistent abdominal pain after transient hypotension, such as that observed during a vasovagal reaction.
A 53-year-old man presented with fulminant hepatitis due to de novo hepatitis B. He had been diagnosed previously with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and previously resolved hepatitis B virus infection. The ATL had been treated with cord blood transplantation (CBT). He developed fulminant hepatitis 18 months after CBT, 15 months after the withdrawal of immunosuppressants, and 10 months after vitreous injections of methotrexate for ATL-related retinal infiltration. The aggressive medical protocol included entecavir, prednisolone, plasma exchange, hemodialysis, and bilirubin adsorption. We herein report successful medical treatment for fulminant de novo hepatitis B in a patient considered unsuitable for liver transplantation.
A 49-year-old man was diagnosed with acute cardiac insufficiency based on evidence of congestive heart failure. The non-invasive measurement of the cardiac output using an AESCULON® mini showed low cardiac output (CO, 3.9 L/min). We administered an intravenous diuretic for cardiac edema and dobutamine drip for low cardiac output. Soon after starting dobutamine at 3.2 γ (microg/kg/min), the CO improved to 6.8 L/min. Combination therapy of diuretic and dobutamine resolved the heart failure. CO measurement by an AESCULON® mini was safe, cost-effective, and convenient. Data output correlates with the CO by Swan-Ganz catheterization. The non-invasive measurement of the CO permitted a smooth recovery without recurrence in this patient.
We encountered a 42-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus and cataracts presenting with repeated syncope whose electrocardiogram showed advanced atrioventricular block. On admission, we excluded major potential differential diagnoses as causes of an atrioventricular block but did not suspect myotonic dystrophy, which was eventually diagnosed by chance based on a suspected weakness of the respiratory muscles followed by a detailed neurological physical examination. Myotonic dystrophy should be suspected as a differential diagnosis when relatively young patients present with conductance disorder.
A 72-year-old man had type 2 diabetes (T2D) that had been diagnosed at 54 years old. Macroalbuminuria was first detected at age 64. While his HbA1c had been kept below 7%, his estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was declining rapidly. At 70 years old, his eGFR dropped below 50 mL/min/1.73 m2. A renal biopsy revealed diabetic nephropathy. Sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i)/glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) combination therapy substantially improved his eGFR and urinary albumin level, and the renoprotective effect persisted for the two-year study period. These findings suggest that SGLT2i and GLP-1RA can additively improve the renal function in patients with T2D.
Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a generally slow-progressing rare disorder of unknown etiology. The direct cause of death in cases of IPPFE is rarely investigated. We experienced an autopsy case of a Japanese man with IPPFE and found aspiration pneumonia to be the major trigger of death. The individual had left vocal cord paralysis at admission, which may have contributed to aspiration pneumonia, and which probably was affected by the fibrous adhesion of the left apex of the chest wall resulting from IPPFE. The prevention of aspiration pneumonia is important for maintaining the respiratory function, especially in IPPFE patients with repeated pneumothorax.
Patients with myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN) are often asymptomatic and thus can remain undiagnosed until they become symptomatic due to progression to the accelerated phase (AP) or transformation to acute leukemia (leukemic transformation; LT). We herein report the case of a previously healthy 38-year-old man who had hyperleukocytosis with dysplastic myeloid precursor cells and severe disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hematopoietic recovery with features of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) after induction chemotherapy was a diagnostic clue. Although rare, this case highlights the limitation of the diagnostic approach for aCML with AP or LT at the initial presentation.
A 64-year-old woman developed symptoms of vomiting and tonic-clonic convulsions 9.5 h after eating 50 roasted Ginkgo biloba seeds with 100 g of alcohol. The intravenous administration of pyridoxal phosphate effectively improved the symptoms. Blood samples were collected and stored over 35 h. The assessment of 4′-O-methylpyridoxine and vitamin B6 vitamers indicated high levels of both, but the pyridoxal phosphate levels were low during the acute stage. These results suggest that 4′-O-methylpyridoxine inhibits the transformation of vitamin B6 analogues to the active form, pyridoxal phosphate. In our case, alcohol may have extended the period until ginkgo intoxication appeared.
We herein report a case of migratory aortitis after the administration of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to a 65-year-old woman with a history of pancreatic cancer. She was being administered pegfilgrastim and developed aortitis around the aortic arch. Although it resolved within two weeks, she again developed aortitis around the descending aorta, presenting as migratory aortitis, after pegfilgrastim was resumed. We further experienced three additional cases of G-CSF-induced aortitis that also showed spontaneous resolution, suggesting no or short-term use of immunosuppression. Aortitis due to G-CSF can present as migratory aortitis, since aortitis can quickly resolve and inflammation can recur at a different location.
We herein report a 24-year-old male construction worker with occupational lead poisoning who presented with acute abdomen and normocytic anemia. The levels of urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin were elevated without any increase in the level of urine porphobilinogen. Detection of an elevated blood lead level of 100 μg/dL confirmed a diagnosis of lead poisoning. Chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate resulted in prompt improvement of the clinical symptoms and the blood lead level. Clinicians should be aware that lead poisoning caused by occupational exposure can still occur sporadically in construction workers in Japan.