Objective To investigate the impact of metabolic and lifestyle factors on erosive esophagitis in young adults. Methods A total of 5,069 people under the age of 40 years old were enrolled in a medical survey at our institute. People with a previous history of upper gastrointestinal tract surgery were excluded, as were individuals taking medication for reflux symptoms, peptic ulcers, or malignancies. Independent and significant predictors affecting the presence of erosive esophagitis were determined by multivariate analysis. Results A total of 4,990 participants (male/female; 3,871/1,119, age; 33.9±3.9 years) were eligible. A total of 728 participants (14.6%) had erosive esophagitis. Male gender and increasing age were independent predictors for increased prevalence of erosive esophagitis (odds ratio=2.242 and 1.045. 95% confidence interval=1.613-3.117 and 1.019-1.072; p<0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption, light-to-moderate-to-heavy smoking, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hiatal hernia each significantly and independently increased the risk for erosive esophagitis (odds ratio=1.499, 1.398, 1.353, 1.570, 1.884, 1.297, 1.562, and 3.213. 95% confidence interval=1.181-1.903, 1.040-1.880, 1.094-1.675, 1.250-1.971, 1.307-2.716, 1.074-1.566, 1.063-2.295, and 2.712-3.807; p=0.001, 0.027, 0.005, <0.001, 0.001, <0.001, 0.007, 0.023, and <0.001 respectively). Helicobacter pylori infection decreased the risk for erosive esophagitis (odds ratio=0.575, 95% confidence interval =0.436-0.759 p<0.001). Neither body mass index nor waist girth conferred increased risk of erosive esophagitis after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Risk of erosive esophagitis in Japanese young adults was not increased by obesity, but it was increased by hiatal hernia and metabolic and lifestyle profiles including hypertension, hyperglycemia, alcohol consumption and smoking.
Objectives The aim of this study was to characterize the pancreatic cystic lesions in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease and to document the changes that occur in the pancreas. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records and the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 20 VHL patients who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2010 at our hospital. The clinical findings, family history and type of tumors and/or cysts were reviewed for each patient. We also analyzed the imaging findings for the pancreas in detail. Results Pancreatic involvement was noted in 16 of the 20 patients (80%). Eleven patients had multiple cysts diffusely distributed in the pancreas, and one patient had a single cyst in the pancreas head. Two patients had serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs) with multiple cysts, and another two patients had neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) which were conventional radiological findings. The largest cysts of four patients (26.7%) increased in size and that of three patients (20%) decreased in size during the follow-up period. We performed surgical resections for the pancreatic tumors (one NET and one SCN) and also performed endoscopic treatment for a pancreatic cyst in one VHL patient with obstructive jaundice. None of the patients died as a result of pancreatic disease. Conclusion The most common type of pancreatic lesions was multiple cysts. SCNs were present in only 10% of the VHL patients. Pancreatic cysts showed positive and/or negative growth according to the CT and MRI findings. The pancreatic cystic lesions did not influence the outcome of the VHL patients.
Objective Hydrogen selectively reduces hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, and numerous experimental and clinical studies suggest that hydrogen can exert potent cellular protective effects against a wide variety of diseases. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that antioxidants can modulate platelet activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between hydrogen and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Methods For human ex vivo studies, we collected blood samples from six healthy humans and added normal saline or hydrogen-rich saline to blood and platelet-rich plasma. We found that collagen (1 μg/mL)-induced platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by hydrogen-rich saline compared with a normal saline group (p=0.044). For rat in vivo studies, animals (n=17) were exposed to either nitrogen-based mixed gas with hydrogen (H2 gas group; n=9) or without hydrogen (non-H2 gas group; n=8). Additionally, another animals (n=13) administered either normal (NS group; n=7) or hydrogen-rich saline (HS group; n=6) (5 ml/kg) via intravenous infusion. Blood samples were drawn from the vena cava before treatment and from the right ventricle after treatment. Collagen (12 μg/mL)-induced platelet aggregation was then measured. Results Collagen-induced platelet aggregation was significantly decreased in H2 gas and HS group rats (p=0.042, 0.018, respectively), while there was no difference in non-H2 gas and NS group rats before and after treatment. Conclusion In summary, these data suggest that hydrogen may inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation.
Background Since serum albumin is glycosylated more rapidly than hemoglobin, it is possible that the glycated albumin (GA) to HbA1c ratio (GA: HbA1c ratio) is potentially a more sensitive indicator of blood glucose excursion than HbA1c. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical usefulness of GA: HbA1c ratio as a marker of daily glucose excursions in patients with type 1 diabetes according to the subtypes; acute onset type 1A, fulminant and slowly progressive type 1 diabetes. Methods Fifty-six outpatients with type 1 diabetes [16 fulminant, 20 acute-onset type 1A and 20 slowly progressive (SPIDDM)] were recruited consecutively. Each patient performed self-monitoring of blood glucose at seven points a day. The associations among the daily profile of glucose and GA, HbA1c, GA: HbA1c ratio were examined across and within the subtypes of type 1 diabetes. Results GA and GA: HbA1c ratio were each independently correlated with mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE) in patients with type 1 diabetes (F=27.53, p<0.001 and F=13.02, p<0.001, respectively). GA: HbA1c ratio was significantly higher in fulminant type 1 diabetic patients than in SPIDDM patients (3.5 ± 0.2 vs. 3.2 ± 0.5, p=0.015) and it was independently associated with MAGE within fulminant type 1 diabetes (F=21.2, p<0.001). Conclusion In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that GA: HbA1c ratio could be a better marker for glycemic variability than HbA1c in type 1 diabetes, especially in fulminant type 1 diabetes.
Objective Tonsillectomy and steroid-pulse (TSP) therapy have been proposed as a curative treatment for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) in Japan. However, we sometimes encounter patients who reject steroid-pulse therapy because of concerns about the side effects of corticosteroids. Here, we examined the efficacy of TSP therapy and tonsillectomy alone for IgAN with urinary abnormalities. Methods Data on 40 IgAN patients diagnosed by renal biopsies, who presented glomerular hematuria and proteinuria at baseline and underwent bilateral palatine tonsillectomy, were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty of them underwent TSP therapy (TSP group), and 20 underwent tonsillectomy alone (T group). We examined associations between therapies, changes in urinary findings and renal function, and subsequent clinical remission (CR), defined as negative proteinuria and urinary erythrocytes of less than 5/high-power field. Results TSP group showed a significant decrease in proteinuria and hematuria earlier than T group. The rates of CR were significantly higher in TSP group compared with T group on the final observation period (75% vs. 45%, p<0.05). There was a significant difference between CR group and non-CR group only in the rate of receiving TSP therapy. Conclusion TSP therapy significantly increased the probability of CR compared with tonsillectomy alone in IgAN patients with urinary abnormalities.
Objective A retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of simple aspiration therapy in primary spontaneous pneumothorax was carried out. Methods We enrolled 143 patients with mild and moderate primary spontaneous pneumothorax between June 2006 and October 2010. Clinical backgrounds and therapeutic results from 92 patients that underwent simple aspiration therapy were assessed. Results All patients were treated safely without any serious complications. With the exception of one patient with an unknown result, the initial success rate after three days was 72.5% (66 out of 91 patients). Chest X-ray analysis at the first medical examination showed that the success rate was significantly low in patients with a larger vertical rim between the apex and top of the lung and a higher collapsed area ratio; in particular, the success rate was markedly decreased in cases that exceeded 8 cm and 50%, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the aspiration volume, however, the success rate was lower when the aspiration volume was more than 1,500 mL. The recurrence rate at one year was 36.4% (24 out of 66 successfully treated patients). Conclusion Our results are nearly identical to previous reports from other countries and show that simple aspiration has proved to be a safe and effective therapy.
Objective We evaluated the relationship between somatic symptoms and depressive conditions among patients visiting the general medicine clinic of a university hospital. Methods We distributed interview forms to 332 consecutive patients who visited our clinic for the first time between March and July 2011. Somatic symptoms were rated using a symptom checklist, and depressive conditions were evaluated using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). We categorized and compared 2 groups of patients: patients with an SDS score of more than 48 (depressive group) and patients with an SDS score of less than 48 (non-depressive group). Results A total of 284 (85.5%) patients returned the forms. The SDS scores were obtained from the forms of 182 patients (64.1%). The average age of these 182 patients was 46.5±18.04 years. The mean number of checked symptoms was 4.3±3.03, and the most common symptom was general fatigue (n=106; 58.2%). The number of checked symptoms in the survey was higher in the depressive group patients than in the non-depressive group patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that general fatigue, headache, and sleeping problems were significant dependent variables which were related to depressive conditions. We defined these 3 symptoms as depression-related somatic symptoms (DRSS). On a receiver-operating characteristic curve, the optimal cutoff scores were 2 of 3 DRSS and 4 of 20 somatic symptoms. Conclusion General physicians should consider possible depressive conditions when patients have 2 or more DRSS or 4 or more somatic symptoms.
A 25-year-old Japanese woman with a large abdominal tumor (10 cm in diameter) and high level of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, 1,222.4 ng/mL) was introduced and admitted to our hospital in January 2011. Pre-operative imaging modalities could not identify the tumor origin. There was no chronic hepatic viral disease, however, the elevated level of fucosylated AFP (87.8%) and connection with the left hepatic lobe led us to diagnose the tumor as a hepatocellular carcinoma. Surgical resection was performed in February. Histological findings revealed a pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (ACC). Herein, we provide details of this difficulty to diagnose a case of ACC.
A coronary artery fistula between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber is a rare condition. We reported a case of right coronary artery fistula to the left ventricle in a 57-year-old man who had 2-year history of chest pain and exercise dyspnea without significant coronary atherosclerosis with abnormal left ventricular size and function. It was important to recognize this anomaly and our experience showed that transcatheter occlusion of coronary artery fistula was a safe and effective procedure in the presence of symptoms of congestive heart failure, significant left-to-right shunt or refractory to medical treatment.
We present the case of a 42-year-old Japanese woman who developed acute heart failure after chemotherapy with epirubicin for breast cancer. Echocardiography revealed a cardiac dysfunction with left ventricular thrombus. Serial serum troponin T tests were positive over a 5-week period, and an endomyocardial biopsy demonstrated ultrastructural lesions which were similar to those caused by cardiotoxicities due to doxorubicin. Although the patient developed splenic thromboembolism, her cardiac function recovered gradually, and she regained full range of her activities. This case report demonstrates that epirubicin-associated cardiotoxicity causes life-threatening heart failure and supportive care is important until the patient recovers from acute intoxication.
Giant coronary artery aneurysm is a rare condition with a reported prevalence of 0.02%. Herein, we report the case of a 79-year-old woman with a giant coronary aneurysm arising from a branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery that had a fistulous connection to the pulmonary artery. The aneurysm was removed and inflow and outflow arteries were closed surgically. Histology showed prominent mucinous degeneration and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the medial layer. After successful surgery, the patient was discharged uneventfully.
Primary cardiac liposarcoma is very rare and usually asymptomatic. It is often diagnosed at an advanced or incurable stage without being presented in surgical operation. We report a man in his early sixties with primary cardiac liposarcoma originating from the ventricular septum. The malignant nature of the tumor was suspected by positron emission tomography using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose as the tracer. The final diagnosis was made histopathologically following surgery. Treatment with carbon ion radiotherapy was applied, but failed to induce tumor regression.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is extremely rarely reported in 48, XYY, +21 karyotype. Herein, we reported one case of 48,XYY,+21 karyotype with CHD and reviewed the available literature. The phenotypic characteristics of the 4-month-old child showed the presence of features typical of mongoloid slant. X-ray detection showed the form of heart was corpulent and the bilateral mediastinum was broad. Doppler echocardiogram detection showed atrial septal and ventricular septal defects with patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary hypertension and mild tricuspid regurgitation. Including this case, 63 cases of 48, XYY, +21 chromosome pattern have been reported. However, only 9 cases have CHD.
We report a case of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with interstitial nephritis associated with multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) successfully treated with an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab). This mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with interstitial nephritis was resistant to methylprednisolone treatment; however, it was markedly improved with tocilizumab, which was administered intravenously at a dose of 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks. These results suggest that tocilizumab is effective for the treatment of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with interstitial nephritis associated with MCD.
A 71-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for two weeks due to edema in both legs. A bone marrow aspiration test confirmed a diagnosis of multiple myeloma. The result of the patient's renal biopsy showed fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN). FGN is a rare form of glomerulopathy that is diagnosed using electron microscopy when deposits of amyloid-like fibrils are observed on the mesangium and microvascular wall. These fibrils do not respond to Congo red staining and are generally 12-30 nm in diameter. This is a report of an unusual case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a patient with multiple myeloma.
The prognosis of patients with chronic respiratory tract infections, especially diffuse panbronchiolitis, is remarkably improved by long-term administration of low-dose macrolides. However, in some cases, patients are refractory to macrolide treatment and show a low or no response; therefore, new treatment strategies are required. Here we present a patient refractory to either single low-dose clarithromycin or azithromycin but responded remarkably to the combination usage of both macrolides.
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PND) are neurological effects of malignancy that are recognized as immune-mediated disorders caused by aberrant expression of a tumor antigen that is normally expressed in the nervous system. We report a case of cerebellar ataxia which turned out to be paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, a subtype of PND that develops cerebellar symptoms, that was caused by follicular lymphoma. After chemotherapy, the patient attained sufficient improvement of cerebellar symptoms along with complete remission of lymphoma. Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration should be recognized as a rare complication of lymphoma as it is important to start proper treatment before the neurological symptoms become irreversible.
Pleural effusion or ascites complicating plasmacytoma is rare and has a poor prognosis. A 70-year-old man was diagnosed as plasma cell leukemia and one course of ranimustine-vindesine, melphalan, and prednisolone followed by melphalan and prednisone (MP) maintained a very good partial response. After MP he was diagnosed to have pleural effusion and ascites as a complication of the plasmacytoma. Low-dose bortezomib caused disappearance of the malignant effusion. The malignant effusions recurred after the end of the second course of bortezomib. High-dose dexamethasone vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone yielded no benefit, the patient died of Aspergillus pneumonia.
A patient with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was administered a thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist, romiplostim. After a step-wise increase the dose of romiplostim, the platelet count was highly fluctuated; it initially markedly increased, but then it subsequently steeply dropped. These fluctuations were observed three consecutive times. The administration of romipolostin was then discontinued. After the re-administration of romiplostim, the dose was gradually increased, and the platelet count rose steadily. The highly fluctuating platelet count in the present patient indicates the need for careful monitoring of the platelet count at the beginning of romiplostim administration.
We report the case of a 48-year-old man with adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) who developed dementia with subacute onset. He was abulic, indifferent to his surroundings, and without insight with regards to his own disease. An elevated plasma very long chain fatty acid level and a novel point mutation IVS3+2t>g in the ABCD1 gene confirmed the diagnosis of ALD. Diffusion-weighted MRI revealed a high intensity area in the white matter of the frontal lobes. Severe brain hypoperfusion in the frontal lobes was revealed. We believe that this is a rare case of adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy with predominant frontal lobe dysfunction.
We describe a 34-year-old eclamptic woman with transient splenial lesion (TSL) after reversible cerebral vasoconstriction (RCV) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). She developed a headache, generalized convulsion and severe hypertension at an uncomplicated virginal delivery. Brain MRI disclosed T2-hyperintensity lesions in the posterior circulation territories. Two weeks later, T2-hyperintensity lesions had vanished. MR angiography (MRA) revealed segmental vasoconstriction in the right posterior, left internal and middle cerebral arteries. At one month after onset, MRA was normalized. T2-weighted imaging depicted asymptomatic isolated TSL. These radiological changes of the present patient highlighted the serial relationship between PRES, RCV and TSL in eclampsia.
We report a 45-year-old man with HIV/AIDS who developed mediastinal lymphadenopathy caused by Nocardia asteroides infection that was diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). He was an untreated HIV-infected man who was admitted to our hospital because of Pneumocystis pneumonia and Cytomegalovirus pneumonia. After treatment for pneumonia, cough and fever recurred and chest computed tomography revealed subcarinal lymphadenopathy with rim enhancement. To identify the etiology, we performed EBUS-TBNA and obtained purulent exudates which contained N. asteroides. EBUS-TBNA is a useful and safe technique for the diagnosis of mediastinal infectious lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.
Lemierre's syndrome (LS) is characterized by pharyngitis followed by septicemia, internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, and metastatic embolization in general. LS is commonly caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. Herein, we present a case of LS with liver abscesses that presented as a sole metastatic lesion. We were not able to diagnose LS until Fusobacterium necrophorum was isolated due to the lack of the common involvement. Doripenem was effective against the pathologic features including the liver abscesses. LS should be taken into consideration when clinicians find liver abscesses following pharyngitis even when the common complications of LS are not detected.
Serratia marcescens has been reported to cause infective endocarditis among intravenous drug users, but it is extremely rare in non-intravenous drug users in Japan. In this article, we report an 85-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus who presented with low-grade fever and general fatigue. She was administered intravenous prednisolone under a diagnosis of right Bell's palsy before this admission. Blood cultures revealed positive Serratia marcescens, which was complicated by multiple cerebral infarctions after admission. Transthoracic echocardiography on day 5 revealed vegetation on the mitral valve, which was diagnosed as infective endocarditis. An operation could not be performed because of the presence of multiple cerebral infarctions. She died on day 65 because of uncontrolled heart failure.
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is an uncommon but clinically important disease, and delayed diagnosis of this condition can have severe consequences. General physicians should consider the possibility of SSEH when they encounter a patient with a sudden onset of unexplained cervical or back pain or subsequent radicular symptoms during anticoagulant therapy. Immediate magnetic resonance imaging is essential for early diagnosis. In this article, we present a rare case of an 80-year-old man who developed cervical SSEH during warfarin therapy.