Objective To evaluate the outcomes of patients with concomitant Brugada syndrome and coronary artery vasospasm.
Methods Patients diagnosed with Brugada syndrome with an implantable cardiac defibrillator were retrospectively investigated, and the coexistence of vasospasm was evaluated. The clinical features and outcomes were evaluated, especially in patients with coexistent vasospasm. A provocation test using acetylcholine was performed in patients confirmed to have no organic stenosis on percutaneous coronary angiography to confirm the presence of vasospasm. Implantable cardiac defibrillator shock status was checked every three months. Statistical comparisons of the groups with and without vasospasm were performed. A univariate analysis was also performed, and the odds ratio for the risk of implantable cardiac defibrillator shock was calculated.
Patients Thirty-five patients with Brugada syndrome, of whom six had coexistent vasospasm.
Results There were no significant differences in the laboratory data, echocardiogram findings, disease, or the history of taking any drugs between patients with and without vasospasm. There were significant differences in the clinical features of Brugada syndrome, i.e. cardiac events such as resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation or appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock. Four patients with vasospasm had cardiac events such as resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation and/or appropriate defibrillator shock; three of them had no cardiac events with calcium channel blocker therapy to prevent vasospasm. The coexistence of vasospasm was a potential risk factor for an appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock (odds ratio: 13.5, confidence interval: 1.572-115.940, p value: 0.035) on a univariate analysis.
Conclusion Coronary artery vasospasm could be a risk factor for cardiac events in patients with Brugada syndrome.
Objective Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that causes fatal infections in critically ill or immunocompromised patients. S. maltophilia bacteremia (SMB) is a rare condition, and its clinical characteristics in Japanese settings are not well known.
Methods The medical charts of patients with SMB were retrospectively reviewed at two medical facilities (Okayama University Hospital and Tsuyama Chuo Hospital) for seven years. The data were analyzed along with those previously reported from other Japanese facilities.
Result A total of 181 patients (110 men and 71 women) were evaluated. The major underlying diseases included hematologic malignancy (36.5%), solid organ malignancy (25.4%), and neutropenia (31.5%). The recent use of carbapenem was seen in 56.9% of the cases in total, and more than one-third of the patients in our hospitals were treated with carbapenem at the onset of SMB. Of 28 (63.6%) of 44 cases treated for S. maltophilia, those who did not survive were more likely to have been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. A multivariate analysis revealed that a higher updated Charlson Comorbidity Index [odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.75 (1.11-2.75); p=0.015] and intubation [odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 12.6 (1.62-97.9); p=0.016] were associated with mortality in our cases. Pathogens were often resistant to ceftazidime but susceptible to minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. The overall mortality rates within 30 and 90 days were 37.5% and 62.5%, respectively.
Conclusion The clinical characteristics of SMB in Japanese cases were similar to those reported from other countries. Clinicians should be aware that breakthrough infection by S. maltophilia may occur during administration of carbapenem.
Although autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is frequently complicated with chronic thyroiditis or other autoimmune disorders, reports on its association with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) are scarce. We herein describe a case of AIH associated with ITP. A 75-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital due to increased aminotransferase levels and severe thrombocytopenia. Elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was detected, and tests for platelet-associated IgG and anti-nuclear antibody were positive. Following the diagnosis of AIH-associated ITP, prednisolone treatment of 0.6 mg/kg/day resulted in a decrease in the aminotransferase levels and an increased platelet count.
Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis is a rare and life-threatening disease that is associated with numerous symptoms and which is also difficult to diagnose. We herein report an autopsy case of a 61-year-old man who died due to pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. The patient complained of vomiting and breathlessness. Computed tomography showed a shadow-like region with a similar appearance to interstitial pneumonia. The patient was diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by severe lung disease based on the results of echocardiography and coronary angiography. The patient was treated for interstitial pneumonia. However, his condition rapidly deteriorated and he died 6 hours after arrival. We were later informed of his extremely high catecholamine serum levels. We found pheochromocytoma with hemorrhage at autopsy. The patient's lungs showed acute passive congestion with edema and extravasation.
A 96-year-old woman developed hemiparesis 2 weeks after orthopedic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple cerebral infarctions in the bilateral hemisphere. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a mobile structure attached to the anterior mitral leaflet that protruded toward the left ventricular outflow tract. The structure was identified as an accessory mitral valve. Doppler echocardiography showed that there was no significant left ventricular outflow obstruction. This is a rare case of a silent accessory mitral valve that was detected after multiple cerebral infarctions.
Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare form of myocardial inflammation that is characterized by the infiltration of eosinophilic cells into the myocardium. The clinical symptoms of eosinophilic myocarditis are similar to those of acute coronary syndrome, and eosinophilic myocarditis sometimes occurs in combination with bronchial asthma. We herein present a case of eosinophilic myocarditis in which additional time was required to make a definitive diagnosis because the patient received steroid therapy. The diagnosis of eosinophilic myocarditis is challenging, especially when a patient has other inflammatory diseases, such as bronchial asthma. We should pay attention to the possibility that steroid therapy may mask the presentation of eosinophilic myocarditis.
Late-onset amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) type familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) shows features distinct from those of early-onset hereditary ATTR type FAP. We herein describe an asymptomatic 68-year-old man with late-onset ATTR type FAP whose serial annual electrocardiograms demonstrated progressive left bundle branch block. Latent but severe cardiac involvement seems to be one feature of late-onset ATTR type FAP, similar to senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA). Early differential diagnosis of late-onset ATTR type FAP from SSA is important because, currently, only the former has new therapeutic options available in Japan. The present case report, therefore, highlights the necessity of careful observation for periodic electrocardiograms.
A 77-year-old woman developed dyspnea over three years which occurred during sitting, standing or walking. Her physical examination, chest X-ray, ECG and cardiac catheterization results were all normal. A marked fall in arterial oxygen saturation was observed on sitting or standing. Transesophageal echocardiography showed an increase of right to left shunt flow on sitting. The patient was diagnosed with platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and underwent the surgical closure of an atrial septal defect of 19 mm in diameter. After the surgery, the patient's POS symptoms were completely resolved. She was discharged and followed at the outpatient clinic. Her post-treatment course was uneventful.
Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders encountered in the elderly. We present the case of an 81-year-old man who developed hyponatremia due to isolated hypoaldosteronism occurring after licorice withdrawal. He had severe hypokalemia with hypertension and was diagnosed with pseudoaldosteronism. He had been taking a very small dose of licorice as a mouth refresher since his early adulthood. Five months after licorice withdrawal, he developed hypovolemic hyponatremia, which was resolved with administration of fludrocortisone acetate. Our experience with this case suggests that isolated hypoaldosteronism occurring after licorice withdrawal should be considered as a potential cause of hyponatremia in elderly patients.
A 46-year-old woman with a history of Graves' disease presented with the chief complaints of appetite loss, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, and sweating. She was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), thyroid storm, and influenza A. She was treated with an intravenous insulin drip, intravenous fluid therapy, intravenous hydrocortisone, oral potassium iodine, and oral methimazole. As methimazole-induced neutropenia was suspected, the patient underwent thyroidectomy. It is important to maintain awareness that thyroid storm and DKA can coexist. Furthermore, even patients who have relatively preserved insulin secretion can develop DKA if thyroid storm and infection develop simultaneously.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by hyperglycemia, anion-gap acidosis, and increased plasma ketones. After the resolution of hyperglycemia, persistent diuresis is rare. We herein report the case of a 27-year-old Asian woman with type 2 diabetes who was treated with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor (canagliflozin) who developed euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis and persistent diuresis in the absence of hyperglycemia. Physicians should consider euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in the differential diagnosis of patients treated with SGLT2 inhibitors.
This case report discusses the clinical indication for immunosuppressants in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Because this disease occasionally shows spontaneous remission, it is necessary to determine the predictive values for a therapeutic effect in order to provide appropriate treatment. Two distinct cases described herein illustrate the different effects of tolvaptan in responders and non-responders, according to the pre-treatment levels of AQP-2 immunostaining in the samples from renal biopsy and urinary levels of AQP-2 and osmolality, suggesting that these values may be useful predictors of response to tolvaptan in patients with nephrotic IMN.
Although the influenza vaccine is relatively safe and effective, serious complications can develop in rare cases. We encountered two cases of interstitial pneumonia that developed after vaccination during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Overall, nine cases, including the two presented here, have been recorded in PubMed and the Cochrane library; eight patients were treated with corticosteroids, and all nine survived, suggesting a good prognosis. Interstitial pneumonia is rare; however, we found an increase in its incidence after 2009. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the possibility of this complication and duly educate all patients in advance.
A 39-year-old man treated with dasatinib for chronic myelogenous leukaemia presented to our hospital with haemoptysis, coughing, and dyspnoea. Chest radiography and computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacities and a crazy-paving pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage was not performed due to serious hypoxemia and bleeding. Significant bleeding from the peripheral bronchi led to a diagnosis of an alveolar haemorrhage. Dasatinib-induced alveolar haemorrhaging was suspected based on the clinical findings. His condition improved immediately after dasatinib withdrawal and initiation of steroid therapy. Reports of alveolar haemorrhaging induced by dasatinib are rare. As such, this is considered an important case.
Hemoglobin (Hb) Kansas is an inherited Hb variant with a low oxygen affinity that is associated with low oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry (SpO2). It leads to asymptomatic cyanosis. Patients with Hb Kansas do not require any specific treatment and the prognosis is good. In patients with unexplained cyanosis, we should thus consider Hb variants, including Hb Kansas and avoid unnecessary investigations and managements. We herein report the case of 65-year-old woman with Hb Kansas and review five other cases (three lineages) that have been reported in Japan.
We herein report the case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with a biopsy-proven tumefactive demyelinating lesion as her first clinical event. Subsequently, she displayed a relapsing-remitting course with recurrence of large demyelinating lesions exceeding 2 cm in diameter rather than the small ovoid lesions characteristic of multiple sclerosis. Administration of interferon beta did not suppress the disease activity. Finally, treatment with natalizumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the cell-adhesion molecule α4-integrin, was initiated, resulting in clinical and radiological stabilization. Our experience here suggests that natalizumab may be an effective therapeutic option for relapsing-remitting tumefactive multiple sclerosis with high disease activity.
Aspergillus and Candida species are the main causative agents of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised human hosts. However, saprophytic fungi are now increasingly being recognized as serious pathogens. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has recently been described as an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We herein report a case of isolated suspected invasive pulmonary infection with T. longibrachiatum in a 29-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. A direct microscopic examination of sputum, bronchoaspiration, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples revealed the presence of fungal septate hyphae. The infection was successfully treated with 1 mg/kg/day liposomal amphotericin B.
We herein report a case of acute cholangitis and bacteremia caused by a commensal Neisseria species, Neisseria subflava, in an 82-year-old man with cholangiocarcinoma. Emergency endoscopic nasobiliary drainage and cefoperazone/sulbactam therapy were effective. Gram negative coccobacilli were isolated from both blood and bile cultures on 5% sheep blood agar. The isolate was identified as N.subflava biovar perflava by mass spectrometry, a sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, and biochemical testing. Although biliary infections due to commensal Neisseria are extremely rare, this case demonstrates the possibility of its occurrence in patients undergoing bile duct treatment.
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) can be complicated by adverse events in the acute phase. We herein present the case of a 71-year-old woman with HSE complicated by cerebral hemorrhage. She presented with acute deterioration of consciousness and fever and was diagnosed with HSE based on the detection of herpes simplex virus-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid by a polymerase chain reaction. The cerebral hemorrhage developed during acyclovir therapy; however, its diagnosis was delayed for 2 days. After the conservative treatment of the cerebral hemorrhage, the patient made a near-complete recovery. Cerebral hemorrhage should be considered as an acute-phase complication of HSE.