Objective Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is characterized by the compression of the third segment of the duodenum between the SMA and aorta, resulting in duodenal obstruction. Because the symptoms of the syndrome are similar to those of functional dyspepsia (FD), this study aimed to examine whether or not patients with SMA syndrome were present among those diagnosed with FD.
Methods Patients with an FD diagnosis underwent measurement of the angle and distance between the SMA and aorta by ultrasonography or computed tomography. Patients with an angle of ≤22° or with a distance of ≤8 mm between the SMA and aorta were diagnosed with SMA syndrome. Bacterial culture of the duodenal aspirate was also performed.
Results Of the 46 FD patients, 5 (11%) met the criteria. All 5 were women with a body mass index significantly lower than the remaining 41 patients (18.7 vs. 24.0 kg/m2, p=0.003). In addition, all 5 patients had 105/mL or more bacteria in the duodenum. The symptoms of these five patients were treated through dietary and postprandial posture counselling with or without medication.
Conclusion Patients with SMA syndrome were observed among underweight women diagnosed with FD. Their symptoms may be associated with bacterial overgrowth.
Objective The administration of glucocorticoids usually causes a mild increase in fasting glucose levels and a greater dose-dependent increase in postprandial values in patients without pre-existing diabetes mellitus. Patients with persistent hyperglycemia due to glucocorticoid therapy sometimes require insulin therapy, which might result in increased weight gain and more episodes of hypoglycemia, some of which are severe. On the other hand, scant evidence is available on the efficacy of oral hypoglycemic agents in treating glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors in patients with glucocorticoid-induced diabetes by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM).
Methods We examined the glycemic profiles using CGM at baseline and 1-4 weeks after initiating DPP-4 inhibitor treatment in patients with newly developed glucocorticoid-induced diabetes.
Results Eleven patients who had been diagnosed with kidney disease or other diseases with renal involvement were recruited for the present retrospective study. After starting DPP-4 inhibitors, the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the glucose level, and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) were significantly improved in comparison to baseline. Furthermore, the area over the curve (AOC) for the glucose levels <70 mg/dL was not increased in comparison to baseline after the initiation of DPP-4 inhibitor treatment. The results indicate that the treatment of patients with glucocorticoid-induced diabetes using DPP-4 inhibitors can minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and reduce glucose variability.
Conclusion DPP-4 inhibitors are potentially useful for blood glucose control in patients with glucocorticoid-induced diabetes.
Objective We investigated the efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction of once-weekly DPP-4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is).
Methods Either of two once-weekly DPP-4Is, trelagliptin or omarigliptin, was administered alone or in combination with other antidiabetic drugs in 80 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for 3 months. The HbA1c, glycoalbumin (GA), body weight, and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) scores were evaluated.
Results Patients switching from other daily DPP-4Is (n=29) showed no significant changes in the HbA1c or GA levels. However, the HbA1c and GA levels of patients who had been naïve to DPP-4Is (n=37) significantly improved from 9.31±2.53% to 7.02±1.20% (p<0.001) and 26.7±11.8% to 17.3±5.7% (p<0.001), respectively. Several non-serious adverse events were reported, including nausea (n=1), abdominal distension (n=1), and constipation (n=1). In the DTSQs, the total score for six questions on the primary factors representing patient treatment satisfaction was not markedly changed in patients switching from daily to weekly DPP-4Is but was significantly improved from 21.0 to 28.0 (p<0.001) in patients naïve to DPP-4Is.
Conclusion These findings suggest that the use of a once-weekly DPP-4I is effective and well-tolerated in diabetes treatment and improves treatment satisfaction.
Objective Smoking is common in patients with allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional association between the current smoking status and total and specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in Korean adults.
Methods Data were obtained from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a national cross-sectional study. We analyzed the data of subjects whose smoking status and serum IgE levels were of acceptable quality.
Results A total of 1,963 subjects (1,118 never smokers, 340 ex-smokers, and 505 current smokers) were included. The total IgE levels and specific IgE levels to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), cockroach, and dog allergens in never smokers were significantly (p<0.0001) lower than in ex-smokers or current smokers. After adjusting for other variables, current smokers independently had significantly higher levels of total IgE and cockroach-specific IgE than ex-smokers or never smokers. The proportions of subjects with total IgE ≥150 kU/L and specific IgE ≥0.35 kU/L to Df-specific IgE were significantly (p value for trend <0.05) increased in ex-smokers and current smokers. The total IgE levels and IgE levels specific to Df, cockroaches, and dogs significantly (p value for trend <0.05) and proportionally increased with increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked daily.
Conclusion Smoking was associated with elevated total IgE levels and IgE levels specific to Df, cockroach, and dog allergens in a cumulative, dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, current smoking status was an independent risk factor for elevated total IgE levels and IgE levels specific to cockroach allergen.
Objective Naratriptan has been reported to reduce the frequency of cluster headache. The purpose of this study was to determine whether naratriptan is effective as a prophylactic treatment for cluster headache in Japan.
Methods We retrospectively reviewed all 43 patients with cluster headache who received preventive treatment with naratriptan from April 2009 to April 2015. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (beta version) (ICHD-3 beta) was used to diagnose cluster headache. This study was conducted at 3 centers (Department of Neurology, Saitama Medical University; Saitama Neuropsychiatric Institute; Saitama Medical University International Medical Center). Patients were recruited from these specialized headache outpatient centers. Naratriptan was taken before the patient went to bed.
Results The study population included 30 men (69.8%) and 13 women (30.2%). Twenty-two cases received other preventive treatments (51.2%), while 21 cases only received naratriptan (48.8%). Among the 43 cases, 37 patients (86.0%) achieved an improvement of cluster headache on naratriptan.
Conclusion Naratriptan has been suggested as a preventive medicine for cluster headache because of the longer the biological half-life in comparison to other triptans. The internal use of naratriptan 2 hours before attacks appears to achieve a good response in patients with cluster headache.
A 46-year-old woman presented with massive hematemesis, caused by the rupture of esophageal varices. The laboratory investigations showed pancytopenia, and imaging tests revealed hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. A diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis was made based on biopsies of the liver, stomach, lungs, heart, and skin. Although fat deposition was predominant, non-caseating granuloma and cirrhotic changes were found in the liver. Non-caseating granuloma was also identified in a biopsy specimen from minute depressions of the gastric folds. This case illustrates the rare involvement of the digestive system in a case of systemic sarcoidosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with isolated right atrial metastasis is extremely rare; most cases are considered inoperable. We herein report the case of a 74-year-old man with HCC with isolated right atrial metastases without hepatic vein invasion; the right atrial lesion was resected because of the risk of heart failure and sudden death. Postoperatively, he underwent transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation for intrahepatic HCC. He recovered completely, with a long-term survival of 36 months. This is the first report of an HCC patient with isolated right atrial metastases without hepatic vein invasion. Tumorectomy for solitary atrial metastasis is effective for HCC patients.
A 29-year-old woman who worked as a KAATSU (a type of body exercise that involves blood flow restriction) instructor visited our emergency room with a chief complaint of swelling and left upper limb pain. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed non-uniform contrast images corresponding to the site from the left axillary vein to the left subclavian vein; vascular ultrasonography of the upper limb revealed a thrombotic obstruction at the same site, leading to a diagnosis of Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS). We herein report our experience with a case of PSS derived from thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS), in a patient who was a KAATSU instructor.
Thyroid storm is a life-threatening disorder that remains a therapeutic challenge. Although β-blockers are the mainstay for treatment, their use can be challenging in cases complicated by rapid atrial fibrillation and decompensated heart failure. We present a case of thyroid storm-associated atrial fibrillation and decompensated heart failure complicated by gastrointestinal dysfunction secondary to diffuse peritonitis that was successfully managed by a switching therapy, in which the continuous intravenous administration of landiolol was changed to bisoprolol via transdermal patch, in the acute phase treatment. This switching therapy may offer a promising therapeutic option for this potentially lethal disorder.
A young obese man with ketoacidosis-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus, associated with severe hypertriglyceridemia, was admitted to a local hospital complaining of abdominal pain. Although the abdominal pain worsened, his serum amylase level remained normal with persistent severe hypertriglyceridemia until the second day of hospitalization. The next day, computed tomography showed severe acute pancreatitis (AP) with serum amylase elevation, while the patient's triglyceride level decreased to 558 mg/dL. He was transferred to our hospital and recovered after intensive care. AP accompanied by diabetic ketoacidosis is not rare but an early diagnosis can be difficult to make due to normal amylase levels in the presence of severe hypertriglyceridemia.
A 55-year-old woman presented with deafness, increased levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA), and renal insufficiency with proteinuria and hematuria. Renal biopsy revealed crescentic glomerulonephritis with the linear deposition of immunoglobulin G along the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and peritubular capillaritis. The anti-GBM antibody levels on admission and 10 days after admission were 11.7 U/mL and 127 U/mL, respectively. These results indicated the sequential development of anti-GBM nephritis and MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis. This report shows that anti-GBM nephritis may be caused by MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis because of preceding otitis media, the sequential anti-GBM antibody titers, and the findings of peritubular capillaritis.
A 78-year-old man presented with acute-onset fever and dyspnea. He had been taking Sho-seiryu-to for allergic rhinitis. A chest radiograph showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities with subpleural sparing, crazy-paving pattern, and traction bronchiectasis. The patient's bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was bloody and transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed alveolitis, organizing pneumonia, and type 2 alveolar epithelial cell proliferation. There were no clinical and laboratory findings suggestive of respiratory tract infection or connective tissue disease. Based on the clinical course and the exclusion of other etiologies, Sho-seiryu-to-induced pneumonitis with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was considered. The patient's pneumonitis resolved after the discontinuation of the drug and the administration of systemic corticosteroid therapy.
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disease with symptoms of ileus without obstruction. Most cases of CIPO are idiopathic, and CIPO as a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is rare. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with functional ileus and confined to bed due to orthostatic hypotension. Chest computed tomography revealed a right hilar mass suspected of being lung cancer. Based on detailed examinations, he was diagnosed with limited-stage SCLC. His symptoms were confirmed as PNS because his serum anti-Hu antibody was positive. His PNS was improved with complete tumor reduction by chemoradiotherapy.
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has rarely been reported as a manifestation of giant cell arteritis (GCA). We herein report a unique case of GCA in a 76-year-old woman who presented with ILD as an initial manifestation of GCA. Ten years before admission, she had been diagnosed with granulomatous ILD of unknown etiology. Corticosteroid therapy induced remission. One year after the cessation of corticosteroid therapy, she was admitted with a persistent fever. After admission, she developed left oculomotor paralysis. Positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) proved extremely useful in establishing the diagnosis. Our case promotes awareness of GCA as a possible diagnosis for granulomatous ILD with unknown etiology.
We herein report an uncommon case of a life-threatening retroperitoneal hematoma after a bone marrow biopsy. Two hours after iliac crest bone harvesting, the patient experienced syncope and severe hypotension. Urgent contrast-enhanced computed tomography demonstrated extravasation from the superior gluteal artery. Transcatheter coil embolization was performed successfully, without complications. Life-threatening complications caused by retroperitoneal bleeding after bone marrow biopsy are very rare. There are few reports on the use of endovascular treatment in the management of life-threatening hemorrhagic complications after bone marrow biopsy.
A 77-year-old man was admitted with posterior cervical pain, lumbago, a low-grade fever, and anorexia after bowel cleaning with polyethylene glycol for colonoscopy. Computed tomography of the neck showed calcification of the transverse ligament of the atlas. He was diagnosed with crowned dens syndrome (CDS). His condition improved following treatment with corticosteroids. This represents a rare case of CDS after endoscopy with polypectomy. We should consider CDS in the differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained fever and posterior cervical pain after bowel preparation for colonoscopy.
A 77-year-old Japanese woman presented to an ophthalmologist with an erythematous swollen upper eyelid and diplopia which was initially diagnosed to be idiopathic dacryoadenitis on the basis of a histological evaluation of an orbital mass that was in remission following a 3.5-month period of systemic corticosteroid therapy. She subsequently developed respiratory symptoms, and was finally diagnosed with systemic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) based on the clinical and histological features. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids and azathioprine. Dacryoadenitis in the form of an orbital inflammatory pseudotumor may be an initial presenting feature of GPA, sometimes as the limited phenotype, and occasionally progressing to systemic disease.
An 80-year-old man, who had been diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, was admitted due to a fever and bloody diarrhea and was treated with a glucocorticoid and azathioprine. After 5 days, he developed an impaired consciousness, headache, and neck stiffness. A sample of the colonic mucosa, blood cultures, and cerebrospinal fluid revealed Listeria monocytogenes infection. Intravenous ampicillin improved the symptoms of fever, bloody diarrhea, and headache without any neurological sequelae. Physicians should consider that Listeria enteritis complicating ulcerative colitis can cause septicemia and meningitis in immunosuppressed patients. A patient's central nervous system can avoid the effects of Listeria meningitis by an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a persistent fever with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the mediastinum and around the pancreatic head. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. We started antiretroviral therapy three weeks after the initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy. Two weeks later, jaundice appeared with dilatation of the biliary tract due to further enlargement of the lymph nodes, which seemed to be immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The administration of corticosteroids resolved the obstructive jaundice without surgical treatment or endoscopic drainage. Obstructive jaundice caused by IRIS should first be treated with corticosteroids before invasive treatment.
Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is characterized by yellowish nails, lymphedema, sinusitis, and pulmonary involvement and can be triggered by various underlying conditions, such as sinusitis or titanium exposure from an artificial joint or dental implant. Since YNS is potentially treatable, its timely diagnosis is important. The authors recently experienced a case of YNS in a patient who developed sinusitis, yellowish nails, bilateral edema of the extremities, and subclinical rheumatoid arthritis after the implantation of a cardiac pacemaker made from titanium. This case may be the first report of YNS induced by a titanium cardiac pacemaker.
Strict restriction of carbohydrates can induce symptomatic ketoacidosis. We herein report a 76-year-old demented woman who developed ketoacidosis after 1 month of abnormal eating behavior involving selectively eating hamburger steak (estimated carbohydrate =12.7 g/day). Laboratory tests showed high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis with elevated blood ketone levels. She was successfully treated with intravenous fluids followed by oral intake of a regular diet. She remained relapse-free after correcting her eating habits. Healthcare providers should know that abnormal eating behavior in demented people can lead to an extremely-low-carbohydrate diet and cause atypical ketoacidosis unexplained by diabetes, heavy alcohol intake, or starvation conditions.