Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Volume 54 , Issue 11
Showing 1-28 articles out of 28 articles from the selected issue
  • Hiromasa Ohira, Kazumichi Abe, Atsushi Takahashi, Hiroshi Watanabe
    2015 Volume 54 Issue 11 Pages 1323-1328
    Published: 2015
    Released: June 01, 2015
    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is thought to be associated with various genetic and immunological abnormalities. Concerning the pathogenesis of AIH, increasing attention has been paid to genome-wide association studies, toll-like receptors and Treg/Th17 balance. For Japanese patients with AIH, novel diagnostic guidelines have been proposed in view of the differential clinical features between Japanese and Caucasian patients. However, the diagnosis of some patients in acute hepatitis phase is not easy. Histologically, centrilobular necrosis without portal inflammation is particularly characteristic in the acute hepatitis phase. Some patients become resistant to steroid therapy and have a very poor prognosis once they progress to acute hepatic failure. Therefore, additional revision of the current diagnostic criteria, including severity grading, will be needed in the future.
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  • Hideaki Kanzaki, Kazuhiro Satomi, Takashi Noda, Wataru Shimizu, Shiro ...
    2015 Volume 54 Issue 11 Pages 1329-1335
    Published: 2015
    Released: June 01, 2015
    Objective Upgrading to biventricular (BiV) pacing benefits heart failure patients with right ventricular (RV) apical pacing. However, the impact of switching from RV apical pacing to BiV pacing on the left ventricular (LV) function accompanied by changes in the QRS duration remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of BiV pacing in heart failure patients under RV apical pacing.
    Methods In 37 patients with heart failure (LV ejection fraction: 22±9%), the maximum rate of LV pressure rise (LV dP/dtmax) and time constant of LV relaxation (tau) were determined in order to assess LV contractility and diastolic relaxation, respectively, under RV apical pacing and BiV pacing. Switching from RV pacing to BiV pacing, the QRS duration was shortened from 209±42 to 162±28 ms (p<0.001) and the LV dP/dtmax values were increased in all patients (+18.4±11.3%, p<0.001), whereas the LV tau values varied (-1.5±13.0%, p=0.723). Shortening of the QRS duration correlated with the increase in LV dP/dtmax (r=-0.689, p<0.001); however, it was not closely associated with the changes in LV tau.
    Conclusion Switching from RV apical pacing to BiV pacing improves the LV contractile function in proportion to the degree of QRS shortening. BiV pacing is recommended in patients with systolic heart failure and a prolonged RV-paced QRS duration.
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  • Hisashi Shoji, Masayuki Maeda, Tetsuro Shirakura, Takahiro Takuma, Hid ...
    2015 Volume 54 Issue 11 Pages 1337-1341
    Published: 2015
    Released: June 01, 2015
    Objective The objective of this study was to assess whether the distribution of pneumococcal capsular types has been changed, while also providing basic data on changes in the distribution after the introduction of Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV)13 in adult medical practice.
    Methods We analyzed 431 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains (200 in 2006 and 231 in 2012) that had been isolated from respiratory infection specimens from adult patients. Capsular typing was performed by the Quellung reaction and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
    Results A comparison of the 2006 and 2012 strains revealed that the number and proportion of strains by serotype increased from 30 (15%) to 46 (20%) for serotype 3, from 4 (2%) to 14 (6%) for serotype 6A, and from 4 (2%) to 13 (6%) for serotype 6C, whereas the number and proportion of strains by serotype decreased from 8 (4%) to 0 (0%) for serotype 4 and from 24 (12%) to 17 (7%) for serotype 6B. From 2006 to 2012, the coverage rate significantly decreased from 39 to 28.1% for PCV7 (p=0.017).
    Conclusion Our study showed a decrease in the vaccine coverage of PCV7. However, PCV13 covered serotypes 3 and 6A, which are prevalent, as well as penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae strains. At present, PCV13 in adult clinical practice seems to be highly significant. However, there is a possibility that the distribution has changed, and careful screening should be continued in the future.
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