Objective The association between frailty and abdominal symptoms has not been evaluated.
Methods We conducted a hospital-based, retrospective cross-sectional study of consecutive outpatients ≥65 years old at the Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo Tokyo Koto Geriatric Medical Center from 2017 to 2019. Patients were included in the study if all of the following information was available from their medical records: patient's profile, the evaluation of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, frailty, nutritional status, findings of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and questionnaire results for abdominal symptoms [Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (FSSG) and Constipation Scoring System (CSS)]. We divided the subjects into frailty and non-frailty groups and investigated the risk factors for frailty.
Results Of the 313 eligible study subjects [134 men (42.8%) and 179 women (57.2%); mean age, 75.7±6.0 years; mean body mass index, 22.8±3.6 kg/m2], frailty was noted in 71 cases (22.7%). In a univariate analysis, an older age (p<0.001), female gender (p=0.010), successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori (p=0.049), proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use (p<0.001), laxative/prokinetics use (p=0.008), sarcopenia (p<0.001), osteoporosis (p<0.001), hypozincemia (p=0.002), hypoalbuminemia (p<0.001), low lymphocytes (p=0.004), a high CONUT score (p<0.001), a high FSSG score (p=0.001), and a high CSS score (p<0.001) were significantly associated with frailty. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that an older age [odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.24, p<0.001], PPI use (OR 2.42; 95% CI 1.18-4.98, p=0.016), sarcopenia (OR 7.35; 95% CI 3.30-16.40, p<0.001), hypozincemia (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p=0.027), a high FSSG score (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16, p=0.021), and a high CSS score (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.03-1.23, p=0.007) were significantly associated with frailty.
Conclusion Advanced age, PPI user, sarcopenia, hypozincemia, a high FSSG score, and high CSS score are associated with frailty.
Objective We investigated the results of biliary cannulation using a short-type single-balloon enteroscope in patients with a native papilla who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastrectomy and analyzed the factors associated with successful cannulation.
Methods The study subjects consisted of patients with a native papilla who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastrectomy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using a short-type single-balloon enteroscope at our institution between September 2011 and July 2019. We carried out a retrospective investigation of the outcomes, including assessing the success rate of biliary cannulation, and analyzed the factors associated with successful cannulation.
Results In total, 78 patients underwent biliary cannulation of a native papilla. The success rate of biliary cannulation was 80.8% (88.5% when including success on repeated attempts). The success rate of the standard cannulation technique was 60.3%, with the use of advanced cannulation techniques to secure the pancreatic duct providing the same additional effect as a normal anatomy. Adverse events occurred in 9.0% of cases. A multivariate analysis of the Roux-en-Y gastrectomy patients found that cannulation was more likely to be successful in patients in whom the scope could be placed in the retroflex position (odds ratio: 7.88, 95% confidence interval: 2.19-37.77, p<0.001).
Conclusion Selective biliary cannulation using a short-type single-balloon enteroscope in patients with a native papilla who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastrectomy was effective and safe. The retroflex position provided a good papilla field of view and improved the success rate of biliary cannulation.
Objective We aimed to investigate the association between the digit symbol test (DST) and clinical characteristics, including the nutritional status of liver cirrhosis patients.
Methods Fifty-nine cirrhotic patients without a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy were retrospectively evaluated. We examined neuropsychological abnormalities (NPAs) using the DST. We also estimated the detailed nutritional status using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The patients were divided into two groups according to their DST status: patients with normal DST scores (DST-Nor group, n=45) and those with abnormal DST scores (DST-Abn group, n=14). The clinical and nutritional findings of the two groups were compared.
Results Overall, 14 (23.7%) patients had a DST abnormality. There were significant differences between the two groups in serum albumin (Alb; p=0.0043), valine (Val; p=0.0016), leucine (Leu; p=0.0078), isoleucine (Ile; p=0.0022), the molar ratio of total branched-chain amino acids to tyrosine (BTR; p=0.00025), total-bilirubin (T-Bil; p=0.0071), prothrombin time (%) (PT; p=0.028), and serum sodium (Na; p=0.035). A multivariate analysis found the BTR to be the only independent predictor of a DST abnormality (hazard ratio, 9.24; p<0.031). An FFQ analysis, revealed that the nutritional findings of patients with and without a DST abnormality, were similar.
Conclusion The BTR was useful for predicting the risk of NPAs, as defined by a DST abnormality. The risk of NPAs may be estimated by monitoring the BTR.
Objective Lipoprotein (a), or Lp (a), has been shown to be associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in populations of various ethnicities. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum Lp (a) and CKD in Japanese patients.
Methods A total of 6,130 subjects who underwent a serum Lp (a) level assessment for any reason (e.g. any type of surgery requiring prolonged bed rest or risk factors for atherosclerosis, such as hypertension or diabetes) were retrospectively investigated at Kanazawa University Hospital from April 2004 to March 2014. Of these, 1,895 subjects were excluded because of the lack of clinical data. Subjects were assessed for Lp (a), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, body mass index (BMI), coronary artery disease (CAD), and CKD (stage ≥3).
Results When the study subjects were divided into quartiles of Lp (a) levels, significant trends were observed with regard to the presence of CKD (p = 2.7×10-13). A multiple regression analysis showed that Lp (a) was significantly associated with CKD [odds ratio (OR), 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-1.17; p = 1.3×10-7, per 10 mg/dL], independent of other classical risk factors, including age, gender, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. Under these conditions, Lp (a) was significantly associated with CAD (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06-1.16; p = 1.7×10-6, per 10 mg/dL), independent of other risk factors.
Conclusion Serum Lp (a) was associated with CKD, independent of other classical risk factors in a Japanese population.
Objective Patients with chronic respiratory failure requiring long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) are at a risk of CO2 retention because of excessive oxygen administration. The CapnoEye™ is a novel portable capnometer that can measure end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) noninvasively. This retrospective study evaluated the usefulness of this device.
Methods EtCO2 was measured using the CapnoEye™. The EtCO2 and partial pressure of venous carbon dioxide (PvCO2) were analyzed, and other clinical data were assessed.
Patients Sixty-one consecutive patients with chronic respiratory failure receiving LTOT in the outpatient department at the Japanese Red Cross Medical Center between July 2017 and March 2018 were retrospectively reviewed.
Results There was a significant correlation between EtCO2 and PvCO2 (r=0.63) in the total study population as well as in the COPD group (r=0.65) and ILD group (r=0.67). The PvCO2 and EtCO2 gradient was correlated with only the body mass index in a multivariate analysis (p=0.0235). The EtCO2 levels on the day of admission were significantly higher than those in the same patients when they were in a stable condition (p=0.0049). There was a significant correlation between ΔEtCO2 and ΔPvCO2 (r=0.4). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed the optimal cut-off EtCO2 value for identifying hypercapnia to be 34 mmHg (p=0.0005).
Conclusion The evaluation of EtCO2 by the CapnoEye™ was useful for predicting PvCO2. The body mass index was identified as a possible predictor of the PvCO2 and EtCO2 gradient. An increase in EtCO2 may indicate deterioration of the respiratory status in patients with chronic respiratory failure receiving LTOT.
Objective Epidemic myalgia associated with human parechovirus type 3 (EM-HPeV3) is characterized by severe muscle pain and weakness on the limbs and trunk with a fever. No outbreak of EM-HPeV3 has been reported since 2016, and its clinical characteristics have not been sufficiently clarified. We herein report a series of EM-HPeV3 cases during the summer of 2019 and clarify the clinical characteristics of EM-HPeV3.
Methods The diagnosis of EM-HPeV3 was established when the patients met both of the following criteria: (1) Patients developed severe muscle pain and weakness with a fever within a week, and those symptoms resolved within a month; and (2) HPeV3 was detected in either a throat swab or fecal specimen of the patient by polymerase chain reaction. We reviewed the medical records of these patients retrospectively.
Results Seven patients met the criteria (6 men and 1 woman, age 34 to 47 years old). Myalgia was observed on the thigh, lower legs, upper arms, and forearms in seven, five, two, and five patients, respectively. Four patients showed distal dominant weakness on the arms, while none of the patients showed proximal dominant weakness on the arms. Of the six patients examined, five showed reduced tendon reflexes on all four limbs. One patient showed slight myogenic change and increased insertion activities on needle electromyography.
Conclusion We observed seven cases of EM-HPeV3 during the summer of 2019. Reduced tendon reflexes and distal dominancy of muscle pain and weakness on the arms are considered its distinct clinical features.
Small-bowel hemangiomas are a possible source of gastrointestinal bleeding for which there is no established treatment approach. In this report, we describe the case of a 58-year-old woman who presented with hematochezia and who was diagnosed with small bowel hemangioma. She was successfully treated using endoscopic sclerotherapy. Initial capsule endoscopy revealed bleeding in the ileum. Subsequent double-balloon enteroscopy showed a 2-cm, bluish-purple, ileal submucosal tumor with an overlying protrusion. The lesion was responsible for the hematochezia and was treated with intralesional injection of polidocanol. The hematochezia completely resolved and at 4 months after sclerotherapy, the size of the lesion was significantly reduced.
A 50-year-old man was referred to our department for overt Cushing's syndrome (CS). His plasma cortisol concentrations were 314 μg/L, and his urinary cortisol concentrations were 431 μg/day. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentration was below the detectable limit. Computed tomography revealed atrophy of both adrenal glands and the presence of a left pararenal tumor. 131I-6β-iodomethyl-norcholesterol scintigraphy showed an intense uptake by the left pararenal tumor. These findings suggested that the left pararenal tumor was ectopic cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenoma. This case serves as a reminder that 131I-6β-iodomethyl-norcholesterol scintigraphy is an effective method for diagnosing ACTH-independent CS in which no adrenal tumor has been found.
Mutations in the TTC21B gene have been identified in patients with nephronophthisis and were recently found in some patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We herein report a Japanese boy with end-stage renal disease due to medullary polycystic kidney disease and primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Next-generation sequencing detected a new compound heterozygous missense mutation in the TTC21B gene. His renal pathological findings and gene mutations have not been previously reported in patients with ciliopathy. For children with severe renal dysfunction, mutations in the TTC21B gene cause both ciliopathy characterized by bilateral polycystic kidney disease and primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
The central nervous system efficacy of dacomitinib, a key agent used in the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is unclear. We herein present our experience in the use of dacomitinib for the treatment of multiple brain metastatic lesions from EGFR-mutation-positive NSCLC in an elderly patient. This case report demonstrates that dacomitinib can be an essential treatment option for patients with brain metastases.
TEMPI syndrome, a disease entity comprising telangiectasia, erythrocytosis with high erythropoietin, monoclonal gammopathy, perinephric fluid collection, and intrapulmonary shunting, was first described by Sykes et al. in 2011. To our knowledge, only 15 cases have been reported worldwide, none of which were in Japan. We herein report a 47-year-old man who had intractable ascites for 2 and a half years and was referred to our department for a peritoneovenous shunt. In addition to ascites, he had telangiectasia, high erythropoietin, monoclonal gammopathy, and perinephric fluid collection. Thus, this is the first case of TEMPI syndrome in Japan.
A 67-year-old woman received induction chemotherapy comprising vincristine, daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide, L-asparaginase and prednisolone for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a common B-cell phenotype. The administration of L-asparaginase at 3,000 U/m2 for 6 days was planned. Before the fourth administration on day 16, left parotid swelling was identified along with increased serum amylase (991 U/L; 94% derived from salivary glands). An enlarged left parotid gland was apparent on computed tomography. The symptoms resolved after cessation of L-asparaginase, with serum amylase normalizing by day 20. This rare adverse event should be recognized as improving within a week after ceasing L-asparaginase.
A 65-year-old woman with spinocerebellar ataxia presented with generalized seizures due to subcortical hemorrhaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed obstruction of the superior sagittal sinus. Despite treatment, she became comatose. MRI newly revealed subdural fluid collection and descent of the brainstem. Her history indicated a recent fall, prompting additional studies, which revealed lumbar fracture and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. We performed an epidural blood patch, and her consciousness was fully restored in one month. This is the first report of cerebral venous thrombosis with CSF leaks in the lumbar region due to a fall injury.
The patient was a 64-year-old man presented with difficulty in walking, articulation, and swallowing, as well as cognitive impairment. He had refractory microcytic anemia and diabetes mellitus. His serum levels of iron, copper, and ceruloplasmin were low. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested iron deposition in the basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar dentate nuclei, and cerebral and cerebellar cortices. He was diagnosed with aceruloplasminemia after a ceruloplasmin gene analysis. Iron chelation therapy with deferasirox improved his anemia and cerebellar symptoms, which included dysarthria and limb ataxia. The present study and previous reports indicate that cerebellar symptoms with aceruloplasminemia might respond to deferasirox in less than one year.
The patient was a 70-year-old man with idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) that appeared on the severely affected side of preceding myasthenia gravis (MG). The patient was diagnosed with MG 5 years prior to the onset of IOI. When IOI was diagnosed, an edrophonium test was negative. IOI was considered because he complained of left orbital pain, eyelid swelling, and cerebral MRI exhibited the enhanced lesions along the left orbital periosteum. A biopsy specimen revealed pathological findings compatible with IOI. The administration of corticosteroids was effective for improving the ocular symptoms. IOI should be considered when ocular symptoms deteriorated with soft tissue swelling/pain in MG patients.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300, belonging to sequence type (ST) 8, is a rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis in the USA. We herein report a case of monomicrobial Fournier's gangrene caused by an ST8, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (designated ksw1). Whole-genome sequencing and analyses for virulence determinants revealed that, unlike USA300, ksw1 lacked virulence genes, such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin and SCCmec, while harboring the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene. These genomic features correlate with ST8 CA-MRSA/J, which is the major genotype of ST8 in Japan.
The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, has spread worldwide from China. There are no case reports from Asia of COVID-19 with facial paralysis and olfactory disturbance. We herein report a case of COVID-19 pneumonia in a Japanese woman who showed facial nerve palsy and olfactory disturbance.