Background Dramatic transient elevation in serum concentrations of hepatic enzymes occurs in some patients following a hypo-perfusion state. This entity is variously termed "shock liver" or "ischemic hepatitis", since the pathogenesis is considered to be ischemia. However, hypotension or shock is not always present. Methods We analyzed the medical records of 293 patients (322 episodes) who had a hypoxic state and were admitted to the critical care units of two general hospitals over a 13-year period. Results Hepatic injury was identified in about 1% of patients in critical care admissions. In addition to hypotension, the causes for hepatic injury were a low flow state secondary to congestive heart failure and hypoxia from sepsis or respiratory failure and hypoxemia from a variety of etiologies. These values were mostly normalized within several days when the hypoxic etiology was corrected and a serious co-morbid state did not intervene. Conclusion Marked elevation of hepatic enzymes can be identified not only in patients with hypotension, but also in normotensive patients in hypoxic state. Thus, the condition is appropriately termed hypoxic hepatopathy.
Objective Moderate to high intensity exercise training is known to ameliorate the coronary risk factors in relation to an improvement in body composition. However, the benefit of low-intensity and low-volume training for these risk factors remains unclear in elderly people. Therefore, we investigated the effects of low-intensity and low-volume exercise training on blood lipid values and insulin resistance in the elderly. Methods A total of 56 healthy elderly individuals (42 females and 14 males) aged 64±6 years participated in a 12-week exercise program, comprising aerobic training and resistance training. Results After the program, there were no significant changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride serum levels, or in peak oxygen uptake on average. However, the homeostasis of minimal assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value was significantly reduced by 21%. The participants were categorized into tertiles based on initial Body Mass Index (BMI). The Middle-BMI group (non-obese subjects) showed reduced HOMA-IR (2.0→1.3, P<0.01), but this reduction was not associated with the reduction in BMI (r=0.08, P=0.74), whereas the two reductions were significantly associated in the High-BMI group (r=0.61, P=0.01). Conclusion Even low-intensity and low-volume exercise training, which would ordinarily be insufficient for improving mean lipid values or aerobic fitness, was found to be effective in improving insulin resistance in the elderly. The improvement in insulin resistance was independent of the improvement in obesity.
Object Metabolic syndrome (MetS) develop by accumulation of excess central obesity occurring insulin resistance. In 2005, the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, in collaboration with seven other Japanese societies defined the diagnostic criterion for Japan-specific MetS. Smoking also causes insulin resistance to develop. To clarify whether smoking is correlated with MetS and how long MetS remains after smoking cessation we undertook a retrospective study. Methods The subjects comprised of 22,892 Japanese who visited the Health-Care Center at Jikei University Hospital in Tokyo for medical check-ups. The participants completed a simple, self-administered questionnaire on their lifestyle including smoking information. MetS was diagnosed with the above criterion. The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidential interval (95%CI) of MetS was calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted by age and gender. Results Compared with never smokers (n=9,434: 41%), the odds ratio (95% CI) of MetS onset for current smokers (n=7,634: 33%) and past smokers (n=5,824: 25%) were 1.20 (1.07-1.35) and 1.21 (1.08-1.37). In the current smokers, the odds ratio of MetS increased with the smoking number, and it significantly occurred by smoking ≥20 cigarettes per day. After quitting, the longer cessation period is related to the lesser chance of developing of MetS. But, MetS remained for at least 10 years and over in the subjects who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day, and for over 20 years in the subjects who smoked 40 cigarettes and more. Conclusion Not only current smoking habits but also past smoking may contribute to the occurrence of MetS.
Objective and background This study was designed to clarify chest computerized tomography (CT) findings of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia facilitating differential diagnosis from CAP (community acquired pneumonia) caused by other organisms. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the CT findings of 36 patients (median age 33 years, 15 males, 21 females) with serologically proven M. pneumoniae pneumonia and 52 patients (median age 61 years, 37 males, 15 females) suffering from CAP with no serological evidence of M. pneumoniae infection. The CT images were analyzed by experienced pulmonologists. Results The most common finding in the M. pneumoniae pneumonia group was bronchial wall thickening, when we compared it with the CAP group (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact probability test). In the CAP group infected with other organisms, dense consolidations with air bronchograms were more frequent than any other findings (p=0.0279, chi-square test). Conclusions The diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia would appear to be reliable when we found bronchial wall thickening in the chest CT images.
Objective It is difficult to obtain sufficient material from pulmonary thin-walled cavitary lesions filled with air by conventional percutaneous aspiration biopsy in order to make a diagnosis. In these cases, we performed percutaneous needle washing (PNW) and ascertained the diagnostic significance of this method. Materials and Methods PNW was performed on 27 patients with a pulmonary thin-walled cavitary lesion whose diagnosis could not be made by sputum and bronchoscopic examinations. Before centesis, the depth of the lesion was measured on CT scan. After the 22-gauge needle was inserted under X-ray fluoroscopic guidance, normal saline was injected into the cavity and aspirated. The aspirated material was examined cytologically and microbiologically. The procedure was carried out during one 30-second breath-holding. Results Upon performing PNW on 27 patients, malignant cells were detected in 10 patients and a bacterial or fungal pathogen was detected in 9 other patients [Aspergillus (4), Mycobacterium (3), Staphylococcus (1), Streptococcus (1)]. The diagnoses of 16 of the 17 patients who were negative for malignant cells on PNW, were ascertained as benign disease during their clinical course including 3 patients who were diagnosed as (or suspected of) having infectious disease clinically, while the diagnosis of one case was unknown. Therefore, the diagnostic sensitivity of PNW for malignant diseases was 91% (10/11), while that for infectious diseases was 69% (9/13). Mild pneumothorax was the only complication of PNW (2 cases). Conclusion PNW may be an appropriate diagnostic procedure for pulmonary thin-walled cavitary lesions whose diagnosis can not be established by other techniques.
A 27-year-old man was admitted due to abdominal fullness. He had ascites and subcutaneous nodules on his head, with liver dysfunction and eosinophilia. Abdominal imaging revealed obstruction of the hepatic veins and stenosis of the inferior vena cava. Histological diagnosis of a subcutaneous nodule revealed obstructive thrombophlebitis with eosinophils. Tyrosine kinase created by fusion of the FIP1L1 and PDGFRA genes, which is characteristic of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), was detected. He was diagnosed with Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with HES. Liver function tests improved after interventional therapy followed by steroid therapy. It is important to diagnose the cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome.
We report herein a 63-year-old female with gastric duplication cyst (GDC), of which resected specimen was histologically shown to be composed of gastric foveolar epithelium and thin bundles of smooth muscle. Computed tomography revealed a thin-walled cystic lesion surrounded by the pancreatic tail, spleen, left kidney, and the stomach. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a thin layer between the cyst and either the spleen or kidney, successfully excluding the possibility that the cyst originated from these organs. Endoscopic ultrasonography failed to show a smooth muscle bundle in the cyst wall, which is a diagnostic finding for GDC. Even retrospectively, these preoperative findings could not distinguish GDC from pancreas-originating cystic lesions. Despite the recent advances in diagnostic imaging modalities, preoperative diagnosis of GDC in adults remains difficult due in part to its rarity and the absence of characteristic findings.
We report a patient with primary hypothyroidism, who developed hepatocellular injury due to levothyroxine, synthetic thyroxine. A 63-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to elevation of liver enzymes. The patient was diagnosed as having hypothyroidism and had been treated with levothyroxine for almost two months until admission. Drug-induced liver injury induced due to levothyroxine was suspected and liver enzymes were rapidly decreased after discontinuation of levothyroxine and dried thyroid powder, also containing thyroxine. Synthetic triiodothyronine, the deiodinated form of levothyroxine was administered instead, and was well tolerated by the patient. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) using levothyroxine was negative. Since triiodothyronine which structurally resembles levothyroxine did not cause liver injury, and DLST using levothyroxine was negative, it is unlikely that levothyroxine itself was targeted by the immune system. Rather, we assume that the complex of levothyroxine as the hapten and liver-related macromolecules in the body as the carrier might have acquired antigenecity in this patient and subsequently resulted in liver injury.
A 77-year-old male was admitted to our hospital for a bulky abdominal mass. He had a history of appendectomy under the diagnosis of appendiceal rupture 23 years previously. He also had received a radical lung resection for an early lung cancer 2 years earlier in another hospital. Tentative diagnosis of peritoneal metastases from the lung cancer was made. He then received 3 courses of chemotherapy, but failed to reach a remission. The final diagnosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei was made by means of abdominocentesis, and he underwent debulking surgery. However, he died on day 56 after the surgery. Pseudomyxoma peritonei requires careful observation, as it has the possibility to be detected after a long-term follow-up period of more than 20 years.
Pericardial haematoma is a rare entity that is thought to arise acutely as a consequence of blunt chest wall injury. We report our experience with a chronic form of presentation in which calcified pericardial haematoma presented as a mass causing chronic constrictive pericarditis symptoms in a patient with no prior history of chest wall injury. The ability to recognize such a rare occurrence is vital as surgery will often be curative.
A 73-year-old woman presented with disturbance of right eyelid opening with ptosis and impairment of right ocular movement, and later was found to have Cushingoid features. Endocrine examinations revealed that plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were elevated, lack of circadian rhythm, resistant to low-doses (0.5, 1, 2 mg) and high-dose (8 mg) dexamethasone, and responsive to CRH and DDAVP. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large pituitary tumor invading the right cavernous sinus. After two months treated with bromocriptine (5 mg/day), she showed clinical improvement with normalization of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and improvement of right eyelid opening and ocular movement. MRI, however, revealed no apparent reduction in the size of pituitary tumor. This is a rare case of bromocriptine-responsive Cushing's disease.
A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of hypertension, blue toe syndrome and an elevation of serum creatinine from 0.8 to 1.4 mg/dl for eleven months. He had no history of invasive vascular procedures. Atherosclerosis was initially suspected, but renal impairment was accelerated following anticoagulant therapy. A renal biopsy established the diagnosis of cholesterol crystal embolism. Withdrawal of anticoagulants and the combination therapy with LDL apheresis and corticosteroids led to stabilization of the renal function. In patients with risk factors for atherosclerosis, cholesterol crystal embolism should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.
A 70-year-old female presented with yellow discoloration of the nail beds of all fingers and toes, as well as bilateral pleural effusions. The patient was diagnosed as having the yellow nail syndrome based on the triad of yellow nails, lymphedema, and pleural effusions. The patient's intractable bilateral pleural effusion was treated with pleurodesis using OK-432. The treatment prevented the accumulation of pleural fluid for a long period of time. Pleural effusion associated with yellow nail syndrome is thought to be difficult to treat; however, this patient's excellent clinical course suggests that pleurodesis with OK-432 could be used to treat the disease in the future.
A 76-year-old man, who was in the hospital for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and was receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment for prostate cancer, developed fever and hypoxemia. Imaging revealed diffuse interstitial shadows, and PCR of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii. The patient's absolute CD4-positive lymphocyte count dropped to 145 /μl, but the HIV antibody was negative. After trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SXT) treatment, the absolute CD4 positive lymphocyte count returned to normal. This patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus developed Pneumocystis pneumonia and developed a transient decrease in CD4-positive lymphocytes.
A 73-year-old man with suspected lymphoproliferative disorder was introduced to our hospital. The patient demonstrated palpable hard masses in the abdomen. Enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a bulky mass of para-aortic lymph nodes. Biopsy of left-sided supraclavicular lymph nodes revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Serum tumor markers were examined, revealing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3,354.0 ng/ml. Rectal examinations revealed a stony-hard prostatic mass. Biopsy of the prostate disclosed poorly to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Although metastases to the supraclavicular lymph nodes are rare in prostate cancer, it should be distinguished from malignant lymphoma and other malignancies.
We encountered two cases of RS3PE (remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema) syndrome accompanied by Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the etiology of RS3PE syndrome is still unknown, several possible associations, such as malignancies and viral infections, have been reported; RS3PE syndrome is thought to be an autoimmune-mediated disorder. The present patients did not have any factors which are reported to be associated with RS3PE. Whether or not the complication of PD and RS3PE syndrome is incidental needs to be further examined, and we discuss here the possible cause of association between PD and RS3PE syndrome, including dopamine agonists one of the anti-PD medications.
A 35-year-old woman with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) developed fever and chest pain during pregnancy. When the dose of prednisolone was reduced, she experienced chest pain with elevated CRP and D-dimer, resulting in admission to our hospital with marked cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Because there was no evidence of other autoimmune disorders or infection, oral prednisolone was increased to 30 mg daily with heparin, and hypercoagulopathy was carefully monitored. The patient's condition improved rapidly, and she delivered a healthy baby. This is the first case to support the beneficial effect of prednisolone in pericarditis with pSS, and illustrates its safety during pregnancy.
The seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was assessed in 56 non-hemophiliac human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adult patients in Japan. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was only 5.4%, which is lower than reported for most other countries. Given these results, patients in Japan displaying lesions of the central nervous system and antibodies to T. gondii have a high probability of toxoplasmosis.