Objective Although the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is cardiovascular disease, DM is also associated with certain site-specific cancers. However, whether DM is associated with an increased risk of cancer of the digestive tract remains undetermined. A nationwide, population-based database in Taiwan was analyzed to explore the relationship between DM and cancer of the digestive organs. Methods From 2000 to 2007, a study cohort consisting of 39,515 patients with newly diagnosed diabetes without a previous diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer was identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. A control cohort of 79,030 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic subjects was selected to compare the occurrence of GI malignancies between the two groups. The association between the incidence of GI cancers and the use of glucose-lowering therapies was also investigated. Results During the 7-year follow-up period, GI cancers developed in 929 diabetic patients (2.35%) and 1,126 subjects (1.42%) in the comparison cohort. DM was associated with a 2.75-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.51-3.02) higher risk of developing GI malignancy. Among GI cancers, the incidences of stomach (adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.49; 95% CI, 1.16-1.92), liver (adjusted HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 2.29-3.07), colon (adjusted HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.28-1.94) and pancreatic cancers (adjusted HR, 4.35; 95% CI, 2.93-6.47) were significantly increased in the patients with DM. An analysis of the effects of various glucose-lowering therapies in the diabetic patients revealed the use of α-glucosidase inhibitors to be associated with a lower risk of hepatic cancer (adjusted HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.4-0.94). Thiazolidinedione (TZD) treatment was associated with lower stomach (adjusted HR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.02-0.82) and hepatic cancer risks (adjusted HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29-0.73), while sulfonylurea use was associated with a lower colon cancer risk (adjusted HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.51-1.09) and a higher pancreatic cancer risk (adjusted HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.21-4.61). Conclusion Patients with DM have an increased risk of GI malignancy that may be affected by the use of different categories of glucose-lowering therapies.
Objective It remains debated whether reduced doses of chronic calcineurin inhibitors benefit graft survival. Methods This retrospective study analyzed 60 first cadaveric renal transplant recipients who received cyclosporine (CSA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and prednisone (CMP group) and 71 recipients who received reduced-dose CSA with prednisone and MMF (RCMP group). All recipients were followed for at least 96 months. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) calculated at different time points, graft survival, the incidence of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) and the acute rejection rate within six months were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results The incidence of acute rejection within six months post-transplant was 15.5% (11/71) in the RCMP group and 13.3% (8/60) in the CMP group. This difference was not significant (p=0.727). The MDRD-calculated GFR in the CMP group reached a peak at 24 months post-transplant (66.6±20.2 mL/min/1.73 m2) then decreased gradually. In contrast, in the RCMP group, the GFR reached a peak at 36 months post-transplant (76.9±19.6 mL/min/1.73 m2). The GFR from month 36 to month 96 was significantly higher in the RCMP group than in the CMP group. The Kaplan-Meier calculated death-censored graft survival in the RCMP group was significantly higher than that observed in the CMP group, with an estimated cumulative proportion surviving at 96 months of 95.5% in the RCMP group and 83.5% in the CMP group. The incidence of CAN within 96 months was 5.6% (4/71) in the RCMP group vs. 16.7% (10/60) in the CMP group (p=0.042). Conclusion An RCMP regimen can significantly improve the long-term GFR level and benefit graft survival.
Objective AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) often involves the central nervous system (CNS). Although the diagnostic value of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in detecting HIV-positive primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) has been established, its usefulness for identifying CNS involvement of systemic ARL remains elusive. In this study, we evaluated the utility of the EBV-DNA load in CSF in identifying CNS involvement in patients with systemic ARL. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and pathological data of consecutive ARL patients managed at our clinic between January 1998 and June 2012. Sixty-two patients with ARL, including eight PCNSL patients and 52 systemic ARL patients, and 63 controls underwent CSF EBV-DNA load evaluations before receiving chemotherapy. ARL-related CNS involvement was defined as any lesion diagnosed histologically or radiologically as a lymphoma in the brain, meninges, spine, cranial nerves or oculus. Results A cut off value of 200 copies/mL predicted the presence of CNS lesions with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 85% in both the PCNSL and systemic ARL patients, while a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 93% were obtained for systemic ARL. A cut off value of 2,000 (3.30 log) copies/mL provided the best specificity (100%), with a sensitivity of 50%. Conclusion Our results support the clinical utility of evaluating the quantitative EBV-DNA load in the CSF for the diagnosis of CNS involvement of systemic ARL as well as PCNSL.
Objective We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and predictive factors for the treatment outcomes of bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BD) as second-line induction therapy prior to high-dose chemotherapy supported by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Methods Sixty-six transplant eligible MM patients treated by the Kyoto Clinical Hematology Study Group between 2006 and 2011 were investigated. Conventional induction chemotherapy, including vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) and high-dose dexamethasone (HDD), was used as first-line induction therapy in all patients, seven (10.6%) of whom attained a very good partial response (VGPR). Of the 59 patients who did not attain VGPR with VAD or HDD, 33 were given BD as second-line induction therapy prior to HDT/ASCT. Results Patients not treated with BD induction showed an overall response rate (ORR, i.e., better than partial response) of 85.3% after induction therapy, while the ORR of patients treated with BD induction improved from 42.4% after conventional induction therapy to 84.8% after BD. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients not treated with BD induction were not significantly influenced by the response to induction therapy. Among the patients treated with BD, failure in attaining VGPR prior to ASCT was associated with a significantly shorter PFS and it also tended to show a shorter OS, while the disease stage and achievement of a complete response after HDT/ASCT had no impact on OS or PFS. Conclusion The achievement of at least VGPR with second-line BD induction therapy is a prerequisite for attaining longer OS and PFS after HDT/ASCT.
Objective Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease that affects the optic nerve and spinal cord. Optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive myelitis associated with systemic autoimmune disease have been recently defined as NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). In this study, we report the efficacy of intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY) therapy for NMOSD. Methods Four patients diagnosed with NMOSD were enrolled in this study. The expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score was used to evaluate the degree of severity. All of the patients received intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP; 1 g/day for three days), and two patients also received plasmapheresis (PP). All of the patients were administered IVCY treatment. Results Anti-AQP4 antibodies were present in the sera of all patients. All patients exhibited longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). Only one patient who fulfilled the criteria for a diagnosis of NMO exhibited optic neuritis. Two patients developed relapse under treatment with low-dose prednisolone (PSL) before the administration of IVCY. The patients in this study exhibited a median improvement in the EDSS score following IVCY treatment from 8.0 to 5.75. Adverse effects were observed in only one patient. Conclusion This study, despite its retrospective design, demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of IVCY for NMOSD in both the acute and chronic phases of the disease and determined the IVCY dosage for Japanese women with NMOSD. Additionally, this study provided evidence that for NMOSD patients with severe disabilities, IVCY added to IVMP and PP may be a useful therapeutic modality.
The development of aortic thrombosis without the presence of atheroscrelosis, dissection, or aneurysms is rare. A cancer-related hypercoagulable state is a well-known risk factor for venous thrombosis, however, atrial thrombosis has rarely been reported in cancer patients. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is known to cause various side-effects. Detecting aortic thrombosis is important because it is a fatal condition. We herein present the first reported case of endo-aortic thrombosis occurring during cisplatin-based chemotherapy for gastric cancer.
Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the most important causes of coronary artery aneurysms in children and young adults. However, the natural course of the disease and the patient prognosis remain obscure. A 72-year-old asymptomatic man with undiagnosed KD underwent whole-heart magnetic resonance coronary angiography during a health checkup. The imaging disclosed giant aneurysms in the proximal portion of the right coronary artery and the left anterior descending artery. The patient was successfully treated with coronary artery bypass grafting. The present case suggests that there may be a substantial number of patients who have attained middle to old age with undiagnosed KD.
Recovery of the ventricular function in a patient with cardiomyopathy is very rare. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome is also very rare. We herein report a case of reversed cardiomyopathy associated with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (Schmidt's syndrome) composed of Addison's disease, vitiligo and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The ventricular function and size were reversed following the administration of suitable hormone replacement therapy for polyendocrine syndrome.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-recognized complication of minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). Previous reports support the concept that AKI associated with MCNS is reversible; however, information regarding the hemodynamic basis of AKI in MCNS is insufficient. We herein describe a case of AKI in a man with MCNS. In this case, monitoring the longitudinal changes in renal perfusion using serial Tc-99m-MAG3 renal scanning was beneficial for evaluating the pathophysiological background associated with the development of AKI. The potential impact of serial renal scanning in MCNS patients with AKI will also be discussed.
Cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE) is a serious complication associated with invasive vascular procedures. The prognosis of the renal involvement type of CCE is very poor, and there is currently no established treatment, other than supportive therapy. We herein report four cases of CCE with severe atherosclerosis wherein the renal function progressively deteriorated after cardiac catheterization. In three of the four patients, low-dose corticosteroids (0.3 mg/kg/day) improved the renal function, whereas the fourth patient died from CCE of the digestive system. This report reviews the literature on CCE and discusses possible therapeutic options.
A 54-year-old-woman with sarcoidosis presented with progressive symmetric, predominantly distal weakness and sensory dysfunction with areflexia in all four limbs. Nerve conduction studies showed multifocal conduction blocks in several nerves. Oral steroids were ineffective; however, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy rapidly and repeatedly improved the patient's neurologic symptoms with a resolution of the conduction blocks. Multifocal conduction blocks are not frequently reported in patients with sarcoid neuropathy, but they may respond to early treatment with IVIG.