objective In patients continuing antithrombotics, delayed bleeding after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a severe complication. Vonoprazan (VPZ) exerts a rapid, potent, and long-lasting antacid effect compared with traditional proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs). This study aimed to compare the incidence of delayed bleeding after gastric ESD between the use of VPZ and PPIs in patients continuing antithrombotics.
Methods In this retrospective analysis, we examined 71 patients with 101 lesions treated with traditional PPIs (PPI group) and 59 patients with 90 lesions treated with VPZ (VPZ group). After 2 days (day 0 and 1) of intravenous PPI administration, either an oral PPI or VPZ was administered from postoperative day 2 to 8 weeks after ESD. We assessed the incidence of overall delayed bleeding as well as bleeding that occurred from day 2 until 8 weeks after ESD.
Results There was no significant difference in the use of antithrombotic agents between the groups. Overall delayed bleeding occurred 13 times (18%) in 9 patients in the PPI group and 18 times (31%) in 17 patients in the VPZ group (p=0.10). Bleeding from day 2 until 8 weeks after ESD occurred 12 times (17%) in 9 patients in the PPI group and 8 times (14%) in 8 patients in the VPZ group.
Conclusion Even with a potent antacid agent, such as VPZ, the incidence of delayed bleeding was high in patients undergoing ESD with continuous antithrombotic agents.
Objective Risks of bleeding and pancreatitis after mucosal resection using the purecut/autocut and blendcut/endocut modes for endoscopic papillectomy have not been fully clarified. Thus, a systematic review on electrosurgical cutting modes for endoscopic papillectomy was conducted focusing on the types and incidence of adverse events.
Methods We searched the PubMed and Cochrane library for cases of endoscopic papillectomy recorded as of April 2017. Studies reporting the methods of electrically excising a tumor in the duodenal papilla and the number of adverse events were extracted. Studies were collected and examined separately based on the electrosurgical cutting mode, and the incidence rate for each adverse event was summarized.
Results A total of 159 relevant articles were found; among them, 20 studies were included and 139 excluded. Five studies analyzed endoscopic papillectomy with the purecut/autocut mode and 16 with the blendcut/endocut mode. Only one study investigated both modes (purecut and endocut). With the purecut/autocut mode, the incidence of bleeding was 2.8-50%, and that of pancreatitis was 0-50% (mean: 12.8%). With the blendcut/endocut mode, the incidence of bleeding was 0-42.3%, and that of pancreatitis was 0%-17.9% (mean: 9.5%).
Conclusion Both methods had high adverse event rates for endoscopic papillectomy. Thus, a standard method of endoscopic papillectomy, including the electrosurgical cutting mode, needs to be established.
Objective Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are regulated by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1α) and are reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). SDF-1α is a substrate of dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4), so we investigated whether or not DPP-4-inhibitors modulate EPC levels in type 2 DM patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods Thirty patients with CAD and type 2 DM treated using an ordinary regimen were enrolled. EPC and SDF-1α levels were compared between those receiving additional 24-week treatment with a DPP-4-inhibitor (n=11) and no additional treatment (n=19). We determined the HbA1c, 1.5-Anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5-AG), coronary flow reserve (CFR), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), E/e', and circulating EPC proportion and SDF-1α levels at baseline and the end of follow-up. The CFR was assessed using a dual-sensor-equipped guidewire. The primary endpoints were changes in the EPC count, SDF-1α levels, and CFR from baseline to the end of follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in the HbA1c and 1,5-AG, which are useful clinical markers of postprandial hyperglycemia, as well as the BNP and E/e'.
Results After the 6-month follow-up, compared with ordinary regimen subjects, the patients receiving a DPP-4-inhibitor showed no significant increase in the EPC proportion (−0.01±0.50 vs. 0.02±0.77%, p=0.87), SDF-1α level (−600.4±653.6 vs. −283.2±543.1 pg/mL, p=0.18), or CFR (0.0±0.2 vs. 0.1±0.6, p=0.20), whereas both the 1.5-AG level (2.4±4.6 vs. −0.7±2.5 μg/dL, p=0.07) and HbA1c (−0.8±1.8 vs. 0.0±0.7%, p=0.02) were improved. There were no significant differences between the two groups in changes in the BNP and E/e'.
Conclusion DPP-4 inhibition with sitagliptin did not increase or decrease the EPC proportion, SDF-1α level, or CFR, although the glycemic control was improved.
Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is a soft tissue sarcoma, occurring most commonly on the lower extremities. We herein report a rare case of primary UPS adjacent to the ascending colon and in the right iliopsoas muscle. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed large masses, and the patient experienced a high-grade fever, leukocytosis, elevated serum C-reactive protein level, and hematopoietic activation on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. This inflammatory reaction was caused by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor secreted by tumor cells. Surgical resection was performed, and the inflammatory reaction disappeared immediately. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and survived one year after the operation without evidence of recurrence.
Two patients underwent hemodialysis. Case 1 with stage IV gastric cancer was treated with reduced doses of capecitabine (1,000 mg/m2/day, days 1 to 14) and oxaliplatin (65 mg/m2, day 1). Although grade 1 thrombocytopenia occurred in the first cycle, grade 3 thrombocytopenia developed in the second cycle because of increasing dosage. After the dosage was reduced, chemotherapy was continued safely. Case 2 with stage IA gastroesophageal cancer was treated with radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy. Treatment with the same dose of CapeOX therapy as in case 1 resulted in no severe toxicity. We conclude that a half-dose of the CapeOX regimen is safe for gastric cancer patients undergoing hemodialysis.
We describe the case a 92-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital with choledocholithiasis and periampullary diverticulum (PAD). Due to PAD, clear visualization of the ampulla of Vater could not be obtained. Although selective bile duct cannulation was difficult, a 7-Fr plastic stent was placed during the first session. Fifteen days later, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was retried using traction devices, and the papilla became visible. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction were performed without any complications. The application of traction devices in endoscopic submucosal dissection may be a promising technique in cases in which endoscopic biliary intervention is difficult due to PAD.
Sorafenib and regorafenib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are used in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and which have similar chemical structures and toxicity profiles. We herein report a case in which regorafenib treatment could be continued for 10 months and stable disease could be maintained for a long period despite the discontinuation of sorafenib due to grade 4 liver injury and grade 3 fever. The severe adverse events could be attributed to drug hypersensitivity, since a drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) indicated sensitivity to sorafenib. A DLST for regorafenib was negative. This is the first report showing that regorafenib could be safely administered after the discontinuation of sorafenib due to hypersensitivity.
Pancreatobiliary maljunction (PBM) is a rare congenital malformation, often associated with adenocarcinoma. However, PBM accompanying gallbladder carcinosarcoma has rarely been reported. A 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital, complaining of abdominal pain. Computed tomography showed a polypoid mass in the gallbladder. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed PBM, and aspirated bile demonstrated elevated levels of pancreatic-type amylase (26,780 U/L) and cancer cells. Extended cholecystectomy was performed. Histologically, the tumor had adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and sarcoma components. Despite the large tumor size (84 mm) and intra-vessel cancer permeations, this patient has been healthy for 73 months since the surgery.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is rare during pregnancy. We herein report a 35-year-old woman who developed CHF with severe left ventricular dysfunction at 35 weeks' gestation. She underwent emergency Caesarean section followed by intensive-care treatment for CHF. The diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) caused by adrenal adenoma was confirmed by endocrinological examinations and histology after adrenalectomy. She was discharged on heart failure medications and glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Both the symptoms and cardiac function had recovered after 12 months of follow-up. This case highlights the importance of considering CS-induced cardiomyopathy as a cause of CHF in pregnant women.
A 77-year-old-man with renal cell carcinoma who was undergoing nivolumab treatment visited our department due to hyperglycemia; his plasma glucose level was 379 mg/dL. Although his serum C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) level was preserved (5.92 ng/mL), we suspected an onset of fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) and immediately started insulin therapy. His CPR levels gradually decreased and were depleted within 1 week. We later discovered that the patient's casual CPR level had been abnormally high (11.78 ng/mL) 2 weeks before his admission. Hence, the possibility of FT1DM in hyperglycemic patients undergoing nivolumab treatment should not be excluded, even with a preserved CPR level.
We herein report the case of a 62-year-old man diagnosed with Legionella pneumonia while engaged in recovery work in a flooded area after the Heavy Rain Event of July 2018 in Japan. The patient was intubated and maintained on mechanical ventilation and continuous hemodiafiltration. He was also administered antimicrobial therapy with ciprofloxacin and azithromycin. After 53 days in the hospital, he was discharged. It is important to recognize the risk of Legionella infection and to take measures to prevent it during recovery work that involves exposure to water and soil after a flood disaster.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is an eosinophilic inflammatory condition characterized by exaggerated immune responses to the fungal genus Aspergillus. Pulmonary manifestations in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are frequent comorbidities. A 66-year-old man with CD treated with an anti-tumor necrosis factor-α antibody presented with dyspnea. Laboratory findings of elevated blood eosinophils and total serum IgE and positive aspergillus-specific antibodies as well as imaging findings of central bronchiectasis and mucoid impaction indicated a diagnosis of ABPA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ABPA arising in a patient with CD. We discuss the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare complication.
A 51-year-old man underwent second-line treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with the immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) pembrolizumab. On day 2 after two cycles of pembrolizumab, he presented with edema limited to the left third, fourth, and fifth fingers. Based on symptoms, laboratory results, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, we diagnosed him with tenosynovitis. We prescribed oral prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg/day), and pembrolizumab was continued. Prednisolone immediately relieved the symptoms, and the tumor was still shrinking on day 21 after eight cycles of pembrolizumab. ICI-induced tenosynovitis was managed while continuing ICI usage, suggesting that 0.5 mg/kg/day prednisone might be effective for tenosynovitis without ICI cessation.
A 75-year-old Japanese woman with a 20-year history of rheumatoid arthritis presented with symptomatic bilateral pleural effusion and lung and brain tumors. She had received methotrexate for five years and tacrolimus for one year. A brain biopsy specimen showed the pathological features of lymphoproliferative disease, but a bone marrow biopsy showed proliferation of plasma cells. She was finally diagnosed with coexistent lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) of the brain and lung and multiple myeloma (MM) of the bone marrow and received chemotherapy for both. This report shows that immunodeficient patients are at risk of developing the unusual coexistence of LYG and MM.
Complex aortic atheroma is a high-risk factor for recurrent embolic stroke. An accurate identification of stroke etiology is clinically important; however, it can be challenging. A 91-year-old man with atrial fibrillation was diagnosed with cardioembolic stroke and treated with mechanical thrombectomy. The removed thrombus microscopically contained foamy cells, suggesting an atheroembolism. An autopsy revealed an atherosclerotic lesion with ulceration, located in the aortic arch. At the lesion, the plaque had microscopically ruptured into the lumen. We therefore concluded that the aortic atherosclerotic lesion was the embolic source. Removed thrombi should be pathologically examined even if a cardioembolic stroke is clinically suspected.
This manuscript describes the first known case of a patient with multiple system atrophy whose parasympathetic dominant disturbance might have been associated with the relative constriction of the superior mesenteric artery, leading to nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and subsequent portomesenteric venous gas with pneumatosis intestinalis on abdominal computed tomography approaching death.
After experiencing upper respiratory-tract symptoms, a 41-year-old woman developed encephalitis with consciousness disturbance and respiratory failure. She had external ophthalmoplegia and facial diplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a brainstem lesion with spared longitudinal pontine bundles. Abnormal findings of the brainstem auditory-evoked potentials and blink reflex supported brainstem damage. The patient was positive for anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies. Repeated immunological treatments improved her symptoms, but severe orthostatic hypotension emerged. A head-up tilt test revealed no arginine vasopressin response to hypotension. The atypical symptoms of this case highlighted that the brainstem is one of the pivotal regions in anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia caused by mutations of FXN. Hypotonus and hyporeflexia of the lower extremities are observed in most FRDA patients. Patients with hyperreflexia, called Friedreich ataxia with retained reflexes (FARR), have also been identified. We herein report the case of a 16-year-old Nepalese boy presenting with early-onset ataxia with prominent spasticity and hyperreflexia of the legs. Mutational analyses established the diagnosis of FRDA presenting as FARR. A haplotype analysis revealed that expanded alleles of the patient shared a common haplotype with Indian and European FRDA patients, suggesting that the mutation descended from a common founder.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are promising drugs for various cancers. However, immune activation by ICIs can lead to immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Autoimmune encephalitis is a rare irAE, and its clinical features remain unknown. We herein report two patients with ICI-associated autoimmune encephalitis who, saliently, showed elevated adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first report of increased ADA levels in the CSF of patients with ICI-induced autoimmune encephalitis. Although the mechanism of the ADA increase is poorly understood, elevated ADA in the CSF may be informative in the diagnosis of this rare disorder.
Perineuritis is a rare type of peripheral neuropathy defined by swelling and cellular infiltration in the perineurium. We herein report a 52-year-old man who presented with subacute onset pain from the back to the lower limbs, muscle weakness and hypoesthesia. A sural nerve biopsy revealed perineuritis, consisting of inflammatory cell infiltration and swelling of the perineurium. Oral prednisolone, plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment were all effective, leading to significant improvement of the symptoms.
A 69-year-old Japanese woman was transferred to our hospital due to pancytopenia with a fever. She had Murphy's sign, and computed tomography showed pleural effusion and a swollen gallbladder without gallstones. We diagnosed her with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC). Partly because her clinical and laboratory findings were not serious enough to warrant immediate surgical intervention, and partly because her poor general condition made her ineligible for surgery, surgical therapy was not selected. Corticosteroid therapy was performed with azathioprine, and the swelling in her gallbladder improved. As a conservative therapy for SLE-associated AAC, corticosteroid therapy combined with azathioprine might be beneficial.
Rhabdomyolysis is a relatively common and life-threatening disease that is sometimes complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI). Several causes have been reported, divided into traumatic and non-traumatic causes. We herein report a patient with rhabdomyolysis with AKI caused by bilateral iliopsoas hematoma. This patient had atrial fibrillation that was poorly controlled with warfarin, and bilateral iliopsoas hematoma was caused by turnover without a history of high-energy injury. Treatment with the rapid neutralization of warfarin improved his clinical condition without complications. We should pay close attention to episodes of turnover among elderly patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.
Pivoxil-containing cephalosporins can result in symptomatic hypocarnitinemia in children. We herein report a case of an 85-year-old man at risk of carnitine deficiency who developed relapsing symptomatic hypoglycemia after treatment with cefcapene pivoxil for urinary tract infection. On admission, laboratory tests showed low blood carnitine concentrations with low normal blood ketone levels. The patient was successfully treated by the oral administration of levocarnitine and dietary modification, including aggressive consumption of meat and dairy products, and remained symptom-free for nine months after the correction of carnitine concentrations. Healthcare providers should be cautious when prescribing pivoxil-containing antimicrobials to patients at high risk of hypocarnitinemia.