Objective: Low-dose aspirin is standard care in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). But, the use of low-dose aspirin in primary prevention has not yet been fully established in Japan although meta-analyses and US/European guidelines support its use in persons at increased CVD risk. This study assessed the health economic consequences of the use of low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of CVD in Japan. Patients and Methods: Based on results reported in two recent meta-analyses of Hayden (2002) and Eidelman (2003), a Markov model was constructed to predict the cost-effectiveness of low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of CVD. The model consists of 5 health states: 1) no history of CVD, 2) history of stroke, 3) history of myocardial infarction, 4) history of CVD, and 5) death, with a 10-year time horizon and 1-year cycles. Direct costs from the insurers' perspective were used, while health outcome was expressed in Life-Years Gained (LYG). 'Discounting Rate' with 3% was applied on effectiveness and costs. Results: For patients with a 1-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) of 1.5% (10-year risk of ±15%), the model demonstrated 'dominance' of the 'aspirin' arm versus 'no aspirin' arm; the 10-year costs were Japanese Yen (JPY) 634,000 (Euro 4,857) and JPY 518,000 (Euro 3,968) in the 'no aspirin' arm and 'aspirin' arm, respectively, while LYG was 8.33 and 8.36, respectively. Low-dose aspirin treatment saved on average JPY 116,000 (Euro 889) [95% confidence interval (CI) JPY 57,077-175,151] per patient. Dominance was demonstrated (non-significant) in the first year of treatment and, low-dose aspirin was dominant to 'no aspirin' arm from an annual risk of 0.20%. Other results of sensitivity analysis on gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding rate, stroke rate, cost of each event and discounting showed the robustness of the results. Conclusions: Administering low-dose aspirin to patients with a 1-year risk of CHD of 1.5% and more is significantly costsaving from the insurers' perspective in Japan.
Objective: To quantitatively isolate and immunologically phenotype mononuclear cells contained in human lung tissue. Methods: Normal appearing lung tissue as far distal to the resected lesion as possible was obtained from lung cancer patients. Lung tissue was thoroughly washed and cut into small pieces and digested with collagenase. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were prepared from controls using Ficoll gradient. Isolated cells and PBMNC were analyzed by flow cytometry. We immunohistochemically stained snap-frozen lung tissue with anti-CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD161 antibodies. Participants: Nineteen patients with lung cancer who underwent lobectomy were enrolled. Twelve healthy volunteers also participated as controls for flow cytometric analysis of PBMNC. Results: In forward scatter vs side scatter, 92.1±7.8% of isolated cells in the lymphoid population expressed leukocyte common antigen, CD45. The frequency of CD45-positive cells in the lymphoid population from lung tissue was as high as that from PBMNC (p=0.118). CD45-positive cells were successfully further extended by anti-CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and CD161 antibodies. Monocyte-macrophages bearing CD68 were also detected. CD68-positive alveolar macrophages dissapeared from alveolar spaces after thorough washing by immunohistochemical staining. Mononuclear cells in the interstitium were positively stained by anti-CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD161 monoclonal antibodies. Conclusions: We could isolate interstitial cells and analyze cell surface markers via flow cytometry from fresh lung specimens by collagenase digestion without further purification. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the cells detected by flow cytometry in the lung interstitium.
The incidence of functional intussusception is extremely rare in adults. A 23-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), complained of colicky abdominal pain associated with vomiting of 1-day duration. Currant jelly stool was observed. Irrespective of hydration and intravenous insulin injection under the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), her abdominal pain and laboratory parameters did not improve. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT) revealed a jejunojejunal intussusception. We maintained large-volume fluid administration, and her abdominal pain began to subside. The stool culture was positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We confirm the intussusception that was resolved by supportive management without surgical intervention in a patient with gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis.
Here, we report a case of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia. A 64-year-old man, who had been diagnosed as having a schizophrenic disorder at the age of 30, presented with alopecia, atrophic nail changes, hyperpigmentation of the skin, and inflammatory polyposis of the stomach and colon. Endoscopic ultrasonography of the stomach and colon revealed diffuse mucosal thickening with small hypoechoic areas, corresponding to edema of the lamina propria. After treatment with parenteral hyperalimentation and tranexamic acid, his physical findings and polyposis gradually improved. This is the first report of Cronkhite-Canada syndrome in a patient with schizophrenia.
A case of extensive inferior myocardial infarction complicated by a large ventricular aneurysm is presented. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 4 days after the onset showed a small protrusion from the necrotic inferior myocardium, which expanded 10 days after onset with a marked pericardial effusion. The follow-up examination by MR and CT imaging 6 months after the onset revealed a large ventricular aneurysm from the inferior cardiac wall. After the aneurysmectomy, the histological study revealed that the aneurysm wall was made up of 2 different types of walls; the peripheral part was a false-pseudo aneurysm and the central part was a pseudo aneurysm. From the serial MR imaging, it is considered that such an aneurysm is primarily formed from a small discontinuation of the LV wall followed by oozing type rupture. Finally, the ruptured central part of the LV wall, which was covered by the pericardium, formed a pseudo aneurysm and the stretched peripheral area, which contains myocardium, formed a false-pseudo aneurysm afterward and then they extended together. Thus, MR imaging provided the important information for the understanding of the formation process of the pseudo and false pseudo LV aneurysm.
A 59-year-old man was diagnosed to have idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) in November 2001. In April 2004, massive ascites and esophageal varices were found. IMF was considered to be the cause of portal hypertension (ascites and esophageal varices). Since ascites tend to be intractable with diuretic drugs, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was inserted in May 2004. Before TIPS, his waist measured 98 cm. On day74 after TIPS, his waist measured 68 cm as a result of the administration of diuretic drugs alone. He eventually died due to hepatic failure on day 168 after TIPS. The autopsy findings suggest that sinusoidal fibrosis caused portal hypertension.
The most common renal manifestation of Sjögren's syndrome is tubulointerstitial nephritis, and glomerular disease is rare (3). A 62-year-old woman with primary Sjögren's syndrome developed nephrotic syndrome. Kidney biopsy was consistent with membraneous glomerulonephritis. Steroid pulse therapy was not effective. Three months later she was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the tongue, and she was given CHOP therapy and radiation. Both the lymphoma and membraneous glomerulonephritis were resolved.
Haemophilus influenzae type b causes more than 95% of serious H. influenzae meningitis. H. influenzae type e (Hie) has been implicated in a few cases of meningitis. Here, we present an adult Saudi patient with Hie meningitis and review the literature. The patient, a 19-year-old Saudi male with no significant past medical history, was noted by his family to have some changes in his mentation, confusion and refusal to eat; subsequently, he became unresponsive. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture grew Hie. The patient was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone with full recovery.
A 32-year-old man with a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with circulatory collapse and deep coma after 9 days of treatment with perospirone hydrochloride, a recently developed atypical antipsychotic agent available only in Japan. The new drug had been added to the long-standing treatment with risperidone. Diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis, he was given insulin and saline with discontinuation of all antipsychotics. Ultimately, diabetes was controlled by dietary therapy alone despite reintroduction of risperidone. The risk of new-onset diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with diabetic risk factors who are taking perospirone hydrochloride or other atypical antipsychotics should be kept in mind.