Behçet disease and its related disorder, Sweet disease, are multifactorial disorders whose susceptibility loci have been identified in the genes of various immunological factors aside from human leukocyte antigens. The neurological involvement of these diseases, including encephalitis, myelitis, and meningitis, referred to as neuro-Behçet disease (NBD) and neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) respectively, is sometimes difficult to diagnose, especially when the characteristic mucocutaneous symptoms do not precede neurological symptoms or when characteristics of both diseases are present in a single patient. NBD and NSD constitute a spectrum of diseases that are differentiated according to the combination of risk factors, including the genetic background. Encephalitis, myelitis, and meningitis similar to NBD or NSD can be diagnosed as spectrum disorders, even if the characteristic mucocutaneous symptoms fail to be detected. Understanding these conditions as a disease spectrum may help elucidate the disease pathogenesis and assist in the development of therapeutic agents.
Objective Clipping is a common technique for managing colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB), despite the lack of published evidence regarding its effectiveness. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of clipping for CDB in preventing early recurrent bleeding.
Methods This dual-center retrospective study included 93 patients who underwent emergency hospitalization for bloody stool, diagnosed with definitive CDB, and treated with clipping or conservative treatment. The primary outcome was early recurrent bleeding. A logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the occurrence of early recurrent bleeding and clipping with adjustment for propensity scores. Secondary outcomes included death, transfusion, length of hospitalization, need for transcatheter arterial embolization or surgery, and adverse events.
Results The patient characteristics were similar between the clipping (n=85) and conservative treatment (n=8) groups. The rate of early recurrent bleeding was significantly lower in the clipping group than in the conservative treatment group [23.5% (20 cases) vs. 75% (6 cases), p=0.005]. In the propensity score-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio for early recurrent bleeding in the clipping group was 0.094 (95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.633, p=0.026). Secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups. Stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH) at the time of recurrent bleeding was identified in 79.2% of patients (19/24). In the clipping group, recurrent bleeding was observed in 62.5% of cases (10/16) from the same diverticulum. However, early recurrent bleeding tended to be less likely with direct clipping (p=0.072).
Conclusion Clipping for definite CDB was more effective in preventing early recurrent bleeding than conservative treatment.
Objective Hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication is associated with decreased serum ferritin and increased serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, although the mechanisms underlying these changes remain unclear. This study aimed to identify the mechanisms underlying the changes in iron and lipid metabolism after HCV eradication.
Methods We retrospectively investigated iron and lipid metabolism changes in 22 patients with chronic hepatitis or compensated liver cirrhosis with HCV genotype 1b infection after HCV eradication. We measured the serum erythroferrone (ERFE) levels to assess the association with these metabolic changes. Patients were administered ledipasvir 90 mg and sofosbuvir 400 mg once daily for 12 weeks and were observed for 12 more weeks to evaluate the sustained virological response.
Results Half of the patients were men. At baseline, the serum ferritin and ERFE levels were elevated, while the serum LDL-C levels were within the normal range. All patients achieved a sustained virological response at 24 weeks; furthermore, the serum ferritin and ERFE levels were significantly decreased, and the serum LDL-C levels were significantly increased at 24 weeks from baseline (p<0.001, all). In men, a decrease in serum ERFE levels was correlated with changes in the serum ferritin and LDL-C levels (r=0.78, p<0.01; r=-0.76, p<0.01, respectively). In addition, a decrease in the serum ferritin levels was correlated with an increase in the serum LDL-C levels (r=-0.89, p<0.001). These correlations were not observed in women.
Conclusion Our results suggest a possible association between iron and lipid metabolism changes and the involvement of ERFE after HCV eradication in men as well as potential sex-related differences.
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder of intestinal dysmotility characterized by chronic symptoms, including vomiting and abdominal pain, associated with bowel obstruction without any mechanical obstructive causes. We herein report a case of mitochondrial diseases with recurrent duodenal obstruction that was initially diagnosed as superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) for a few years but was later diagnosed as CIPO. Since CIPO is known to be associated with mitochondrial diseases, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with mitochondrial diseases presenting with recurrent intestinal obstruction.
Takayasu arteritis (TA) sometimes presents with colitis, which may be diagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU) because of atypical or mixed findings of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease. We herein report an 18-year-old girl presenting with colitis with an occasional high fever eventually diagnosed as TA with IBDU. Colonic inflammation was initially discontinuous and stronger in the proximal colon, atypical of UC. However, over 10-year observation, the distribution of colonic inflammation varied and became UC-like. Variations in TA-related colonic inflammations over time have been unclear. Our long-term observation might help clarify the details of TA-related colonic inflammation.
Hemolytic anemia and pure red cell aplasia are rare hematological complications of hepatitis B virus infection. We herein report a 24-year-old man who was diagnosed with hemolytic anemia and possible transient pure red cell anemia eight weeks after a severe episode of acute hepatitis B virus infection. Rapid recovery was observed with conservative management. Hemoglobin returned to baseline within three months. As the clinical features of hemolytic anemia associated with hepatitis B virus have not yet been elucidated, we conducted a systematic review and present an analysis of the 20 reported cases, including our present case.
We herein report a case of mitochondrial disease with heart and intestinal tract involvement resulting in hemodynamic collapse. A 66-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital because of cardiogenic shock. Vasopressors were administered, and a circulatory support device was deployed. However, her hemodynamics did not improve sufficiently, and we detected abdominal compartment syndrome caused by the aggravation of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction as a complication. Insertion of a colorectal tube immediately decreased the intra-abdominal pressure, improving the hemodynamics. Finally, we diagnosed her with mitochondrial disease, concluding that the resulting combination of acute heart failure and abdominal compartment syndrome had aggravated the hemodynamics.
Isolated right ventricular (RV) infarction is extremely rare and its diagnosis may be challenging, because RV infarction most often occurs simultaneously with infarction of the inferior wall of the left ventricle. A 66-year-old man with a history of diabetes mellitus presented with cold sweat and general malaise. Although his symptoms were atypical for myocardial infarction, he was quickly diagnosed with RV infarction and successfully underwent urgent percutaneous coronary intervention. He was definitely diagnosed with isolated RV infarction by a scintigram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Our review showed the importance of the combined assessment in the diagnosis of isolated RV infarction.
COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis has been reported worldwide. We herein report two Japanese cases with suspected vaccine-related myocarditis. A 27-year-old man was admitted with chest pain 4 days after the second vaccination. An electrocardiogram (ECG) did not reveal any significant abnormalities. The second patient, a 37-year-old man, was admitted with chest pain 9 days after the first vaccination. His ECG exhibited ST-elevation in multiple leads. In both cases, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with myocarditis. They recovered with symptomatic relief within a few days. These cases suggest that the benefit of COVID-19 vaccination exceeds the risk of vaccine-related myocarditis.
A 35-year-old Japanese woman with no history of hypertension developed hypertension 5 days after normal delivery. Endocrinological and radiological examinations indicated primary aldosteronism (PA) and a 1.4-cm left adrenal tumor. The patient underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and a diagnosis of aldosterone-producing adenoma was confirmed immunohistochemically. Her plasma aldosterone concentration and blood pressure normalized. Cases of PA presenting with hypertension in the postpartum period have been reported. This case suggests that PA should be considered in women with postpartum hypertension, especially in those with blood pressure that suddenly increases shortly after delivery, even if they were normotensive before and throughout pregnancy.
A 79-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes receiving insulin was rushed to our hospital due to severe hypoglycemia. Glucose was administered, and the consciousness disturbance was promptly improved. A few hours later, conjugate deviation of the eyes to the right and left hemiplegia occurred at a normal glucose level. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintensities of the right posterior limb of the internal capsule and the medial thalamus on diffusion-weighted imaging sequences. However, the changes observed using MRI disappeared completely on the third day, and her symptoms subsequently improved. This may have been a case of glucose reperfusion injury.
An 84-year-old woman visited our hospital for dyspnea due to right pleural effusion, with lymphocytic dominance and a high adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, that had been noted 1 month earlier. She was suspected of having tuberculosis pleurisy; however, anti-tuberculosis treatment yielded no improvements. She was diagnosed with pleural effusion due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) based on her dry eyes and mouth, positivity for anti-Sjögren's-syndrome-related antigen A/B, and histopathologic findings of a lip biopsy and thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. Her symptoms improved after starting steroid therapy. Cases of pleural effusion due to SjS with a high ADA level may be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis pleurisy.
We herein report the long-term changes in chest computed tomography (CT) findings from early sarcoidosis lesions to pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)-like lesions in a 30-year-old man with granulomas on a transbronchial lung biopsy. Multiple bilateral micronodular and nodular opacities around the bronchovascular bundle in the upper lobes detected by chest CT in 2004 disappeared, but paradoxically, peripheral consolidations continued to grow at the periphery of the original lesions. Chest CT in 2017 confirmed the progression of bilateral shrinkage of the upper lobe, spread of peripheral consolidations and wedge-shaped opacities below the first rib, and bronchiectatic air bronchograms, confirming PPFE-like lesions.
We herein report a 66-year-old man with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who developed durvalumab-associated myocarditis. The patient underwent durvalumab administration every two weeks following concurrent chemoradiotherapy, without any adverse events or apparent disease progression. He presented with fatigue and dyspnea on exertion seven months after the first administration. Myocarditis was suspected based on laboratory data, an electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. The definitive diagnosis was confirmed by a myocardial biopsy. Myocarditis was alleviated by cessation of durvalumab and corticosteroid therapy. This is a noteworthy case to describe late-onset myocarditis following the administration of durvalumab for NSCLC.
Airway-centered fibroelastosis is a distinct entity characterized by prominent airway-centered elastosis of the upper lobe with little or no pleural involvement. Little is known regarding its etiology; however, it was reported to have an idiopathic or asthma-associated etiology. We document, for the first time, 2 women (19 and 60 years old) who developed pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis with a predominantly airway-centered distribution as a late complication (6 and 9 years later, respectively) of chemotherapy. The disease rapidly progressed following the manifestation of symptoms, and they subsequently died (3 and 2 years later, respectively). Therefore, post-chemotherapy long-term monitoring for this disease is warranted.
No study has reported a unilateral localized cerebral lesion of the posterior insula bilaterally reducing noxious stimuli perception. A 57-year-old man with an infarct involving the right posterior insula presented with reduced somatosensory response in the upper and lower left extremities. Furthermore, there was a reduced response to noxious stimulation in the right upper and lower limbs. We noted reductions in pain, noxious heat and cold perceptions, and sensitivity to increasing temperature. Other somatic sensations, including non-noxious temperatures, remained intact in the right upper and lower extremities. These findings in our patient with a unilateral insular lesion indicated a bilaterally reduced perception of noxious stimulation.
We herein report a case of myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) harboring a novel variant in mitochondrial cysteine transfer RNA (MT-TC). A 68-year-old woman presented with progressive myoclonic epilepsy with optic atrophy and peripheral neuropathy. A skin biopsy revealed p62-positive intranuclear inclusions. No mutations were found in the causative genes for diseases known to be related to intranuclear inclusions; however, a novel variant in MT-TC was found. The association between intranuclear inclusions and this newly identified MERRF-associated variant is unclear; however, the rare complication of intranuclear inclusions in a patient with typical MERRF symptoms should be noted for future studies.
A 49-year-old Japanese man had shown developmental delay, learning difficulties, epilepsy, and slowly progressive gait disturbance in elementary school. At 46 years old, he experienced repeated drowsiness with or without generalized convulsions, and hyperammonemia was detected. Brain magnetic resonance imaging detected multiple cerebral white matter lesions. An electroencephalogram showed diffuse slow basic activities with 2- to 3-Hz δ waves. Genetic tests confirmed a diagnosis of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. Leukoencephalopathy was resolved following the administration of L-arginine and lactulose with a decrease in plasma ammonia levels and glutamine-glutamate peak on magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Leukoencephalopathy in HHH syndrome may be reversible with the resolution of hyperammonemia-induced glutamine toxicity.
Acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) is rare in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We herein report a case of AFOP with SLE and hemophagocytic syndrome. Early-phase high-resolution computed tomography showed a fine granular lung pattern. A pathological examination revealed AFOP. An immunohistological examination revealed numerous CD163+ and fewer CD68+ macrophages present in the lung tissue and in alveolar spaces as well, including fibrin balls, the interstitium, and bronchial walls. Pneumonia and thrombocytopenia worsened during high-dose steroid therapy, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin administration. The addition of intravenous cyclophosphamide successfully ameliorated the symptoms and radiographic lesions. Therefore, this therapy may be useful for treating severe AFOP.
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic disease that causes vasculitis in various organs. Although the cause of the onset is unknown, infection has been reported to be a causative factor. The subsequent cytokine storm triggered by the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported to lead to symptoms being more severe. We herein report our experience with the onset of AAV following COVID-19 infection. We also report the course of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum antibody titers following induction therapy, which suggests that vaccination and education concerning standard precautions are necessary in patients who require immunosuppressive therapy, even after COVID-19 infection.
A 68-year-old woman developed systemic blisters while receiving treatment for nephrotic syndrome. As she also developed marked liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation, she was admitted to our hospital. She was diagnosed with varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. Treatment was administered in the intensive-care unit, but the patient died on day 24 post-admission after severe VZV infection. A post-mortem examination showed micro-abscesses and necrosis caused by varicella zoster infection in multiple organs, including the liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Because VZV infection can become severe in immunocompromised patients, careful consideration is needed for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection.
Staphylococcus schleiferi has rarely been reported to cause pyogenic spondylitis. A 42-year-old man had been treated for Crohn's disease with immunosuppressive agents and home parenteral nutrition via a central vein (CV) port. The patient was admitted to our hospital, presenting with neck pain and a fever. A neurological examination showed slight weakness in his left-hand muscles, and he was diagnosed with pyogenic spondylitis of C6 and C7 vertebral bodies due to catheter-related blood stream infection caused by S. schleiferi. An early diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging, CV port removal and antibiotic therapy targeting S. schleiferi improved his symptoms.
Listeria monocytogenes can cause gastrointestinal infections in healthy children and adults, but they tend to be mild and self-limiting. It can, however, cause serious potentially lethal infections, such as meningitis and bacteremia, to those with underlying conditions. A woman in her 60s with liver cirrhosis developed abdominal pain and a fever, and she turned out to have a perianal abscess caused by L. monocytogenes. Perianal abscess is a rare complication of L. monocytogenes, but a recent epidemiological study revealed that the presence of cirrhosis might also be a risk factor for the development of invasive disease.
With expansion of the COVID-19 pandemic, reports of post-COVID-19 interstitial lung disease (ILD) have been emerging. However, there are few reports regarding treatment. Some reports indicate that corticosteroids are effective for post-COVID-19 ILD, but the use of long-term corticosteroid carries risks of side effects. We administered tacrolimus to an elderly patient with post-COVID-19 ILD who suffered a respiratory failure relapse during steroid tapering. The respiratory status improved with tacrolimus in the post-acute phase, but pulmonary fibrosis progressed in the late phase. Tacrolimus may be effective for treating post-COVID-19 ILD in the post-acute phase, but it does not halt progression of pulmonary fibrosis.