Objective To elucidate the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF). Methods IgG4-related RF was diagnosed when all of the following three criteria were fulfilled: retroperitoneal soft tissue masses surrounding the aorta and/or adjacent tissues, elevation of the serum IgG4 levels, and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in at least one organ or site. Ten patients were diagnosed as having IgG4-related RF. Results The mean age at diagnosis was 70.1 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:0.6. Only two patients had initial symptoms predominantly related to RF (back pain and edema of the lower extremities), while the remaining eight patients reported initial symptoms due to associated diseases. On laboratory examination, a severe inflammatory reaction was observed in one patient. Elevation of the levels of serum IgG and IgE, eosinophilia and positivity of antinuclear antibodies were detected in seven, five, two and seven patients, respectively. The retroperitoneal masses were detected primarily in the left renal hilus in four patients, in the periaortic region in five patients and in both regions in one patient. Hydronephrosis was present in five patients. The histological diagnosis was confirmed in the retroperitoneal masses (resection, n=1 biopsy, n=2) and extraretroperitoneal lesions (n=7). Twenty-four other IgG4-related diseases were found to be associated with IgG4-related RF in nine patients (autoimmune pancreatitis (n=2), sialadenitis (n=4), dacryoadenitis (n=5), lymphadenopathy (n=9), pulmonary pseudotumor (n=1) and pituitary pseudotumor (n=1)). Seven patients underwent steroid therapy, all of whom responded well and showed no instances relapse. Conclusion IgG4-related RF has several clinical characteristic features. Our diagnostic criteria may be helpful in obtaining a correct diagnosis.
Objective Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is critical in the management of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), since the prognosis of PBC has improved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCC development affects the prognosis of PBC and to identify the risk factors for HCC in Japanese patients with PBC. Methods We compared the survival rates between patients with HCC and those without and analyzed the risk factors for HCC development in 210 patients with PBC who were followed up for a median period of 8.5 years. Results HCC developed during follow-up in 11 patients (5.2%) and was diagnosed simultaneously at the time of diagnosis of PBC in five patients (2.4%) who were excluded from the analysis. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in overall survival between the patients who did and did not develop HCC (p<0.001). A multivariate analysis revealed age (OR: 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.13, p=0.001), the albumin level (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.56, p=0.001), the total bilirubin level (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.09-2.36, p=0.017) and HCC development (OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 1.24-7.15, p=0.015) to be significant prognostic factors and identified only an advanced histological stage (Scheuer's classification III or IV, OR: 6.27, 95% CI: 1.80-21.83, p=0.004) to be a risk factor associated with HCC. Conclusion HCC development significantly affects the survival of patients with PBC, and an advanced histological stage is the only risk factor associated with HCC development. These results highlight the important role of liver fibrosis in hepatocarcinogenesis in patients with PBC.
Objective In addition to excess visceral fat, lipid deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to explore the relationship between hepatic and muscular lipid deposition and visceral fat accumulation in 105 middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome. Methods Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was used to simultaneously evaluate the visceral fat area (VFA) and CT Hounsfield unit (HU) values of three different portions of skeletal muscle and the liver. Results A significant inverse correlation was observed between the VFA and the CT HU values of the iliopsoas muscle, back muscle, rectus abdominis muscle and liver. Three types of interventions, i.e., lifestyle modification and treatment with antidiabetic drugs, such as Pioglitazone or Miglitol, caused significant decreases in visceral fat accumulation. The extent of lipid deposition in the liver was strongly correlated with the levels of glucose-lipid metabolic markers, which decreased significantly following Pioglitazone treatment. On the other hand, the amount of lipid deposition in the three skeletal muscles and the liver did not decrease after Miglitol treatment. Conclusion Visceral fat accumulation is accompanied by excess lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and the liver in patients with metabolic syndrome. The CT-based simultaneous, concise evaluations of ectopic lipid deposition and visceral fat mass used in the present study may provide unique information for assessing cardiometabolic risks and the therapeutic impact in patients with diabetes-obesity syndrome.
Objective It is difficult to make the differential diagnosis between tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) when the smear is negative. The objective of this study was to create a diagnostic rule for differentiating TBM from CM in adult HIV-negative patients based on clinical and laboratory features. Methods The clinical and laboratory data of 219 adult HIV-negative patients satisfying the diagnostic criteria for tuberculous (n=100) and cryptococcal (n=119) meningitis hospitalized at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University during the period 2000-2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Features found to be independently predictive of tuberculous meningitis were modeled using a multivariate logistic regression to create a diagnostic rule. The performance of the diagnostic rule was assessed using a prospective test data method. Results Six factors were found to be predictive of a diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: gender, mental disorders, vision and/or hearing damage, proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, the total cerebrospinal fluid white cell count and the coexistence of tuberculosis in peripheral organs. The diagnostic rule developed using these features exhibited 78.0% sensitivity, 95.2% specificity, 92.9% positive predictive value and 84.4% negative predictive value. The corresponding values for the diagnostic rule were 70.0% and 88.0% using prospective test data. Conclusion Clinical and laboratory features can be helpful in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis in adult HIV-negative patients.
We herein describe the case of a 51-year-old man with a duodenocolic fistula (DCF) caused by a stomal ulcer. The patient complained of watery diarrhea, dysgeusia and malnutrition. His medical history included distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for duodenal ulcer perforation. A combination study using endoscopy and contrast imaging confirmed the presence of DCF. Laparotomic fistulectomy was performed, which resulted in the patient's recovery from diarrhea and malnutrition. The histological findings suggested that the fistula had originated from a stomal ulcer. In patients with chronic watery diarrhea of obscure origin following gastrectomy, DCF is a possible cause of the diarrhea.
During upper endoscopic screening, a 71-year-old asymptomatic woman was found to have a small, yellowish, superficial elevated lesion in the upper third of her stomach, without any signs of atrophic mucosa. The patient underwent endoscopic follow-up once a year for approximately five years; however, changes in the tumor were barely detectable. Endoscopic mucosal resection was performed, and a histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma with chief cell differentiation (GA-CCD). GA-CCD is rare; therefore, its clinicopathological features remain unknown. This case suggests that only barely detectable endoscopic changes may be observed in GA-CCD during long-term follow-up.
The response rate and overall survival after sorafenib administration in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma are unsatisfactory. We herein present the case of a 65-year-old man with multiple lung metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma. Because the patient had liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh B accompanied by pancytopenia, sorafenib administration was initiated at a dose of 400 mg daily. Although he received sorafenib for only 21 days, the patient exhibited complete regression of the tumors. There was no clinical evidence of recurrence without the administration of anticancer treatment. It is unique that short-term sorafenib treatment achieved a complete response.
Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the thyroid is very rare. There are no reports of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) converting to SCC in cervical lymph nodes following total thyroidectomy due to conventional PTC. An 86-year-old woman with a remote history of total thyroidectomy due to PTC underwent palliative neck surgery to treat recurrent bleeding originating from a metastatic tumor of the cervical lymph nodes. The resected mass was composed of mixed SCC and PTC. Although primary SCC rarely occurs in the thyroid, conversion of PTC to SCC should be suspected if preexisting PTC exhibits highly aggressive behavior.
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant inherited tumor syndrome characterized by the presence of heterogeneous tumors derived from different organs. VHL is caused by germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 3p25-26. The loss of functional VHL protein contributes to tumorigenesis. VHL tumors are most frequently derived from the kidneys, adrenal gland, central nervous system, eyes, inner ear, epididymis and pancreas. We herein describe the case of a 64-year-old man carrying the VHL gene mutation affected by simultaneous colon adenocarcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma and adrenal pheochromocytoma.
We herein report a case of spontaneous pregnancy and preterm delivery in a 29-year-old patient with myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis. Her basal serum creatinine level before pregnancy was 1.4 mg/dL and her urinary protein level was approximately 2 g/day. The proteinuria and hematuria increased during pregnancy, and the patient was admitted to our hospital and treated with prednisolone (PSL). At 27 weeks of gestation, she delivered a live infant weighing 848 g via cesarean section. No relapse of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis occurred.
A 56-year-old Japanese man developed a cerebral hemorrhage and was diagnosed with plasma cell-type multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) based on the findings of an inguinal lymph node biopsy in addition to clinical findings, including hypergammaglobulinemia, anemia and elevation of the levels of CRP and serum IL-6. Although a renal biopsy showed nephrosclerosis, the levels of serum lipids and apolipoprotein were low. Following the initiation of treatment with anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibodies, the hypergammaglobulinemia, anemia, CRP level and serum lipid profile improved. However, inflammation due to overproduction of IL-6 persisted, and atherosclerotic vascular events occurred as critical complications, even though the serum levels of lipids were very low.
We herein report an autopsied case of a patient with adenocarcinoma of the lungs who developed nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) that caused acute heart failure (AHF) due to acute aortic stenosis (AS). A 37-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to chest pain and fever. He was diagnosed as having Stage IV lung cancer. Following the administration of chemotherapy, the patient presented with acute onset of dyspnea. He was diagnosed with having AHF based on his clinical course and physical findings, and ultimately he died without responding to treatment. The autopsy revealed that NBTE caused acute AS leading to AHF.
Steroid therapy is commonly prescribed, although a variety of complications have been reported. Among such complications, spinal epidural lipomatosis is rare and difficult to diagnose before paraparesis occurs. The purpose of this report is to present a rare but catastrophic complication of steroid therapy. A 64-year-old woman undergoing long-term steroid therapy suffered from an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture and was unable to walk due to paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a D7 compression fracture and stored epidural adipose tissue between D5 and D8. After surgery, the patient was able to walk with double canes. This case indicates that long-term steroid use has the potential to induce paraparesis.
We herein report the cases of two patients with bilateral symmetrical pallidal lesions mimicking hypoxic encephalopathy following severe anemia associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage despite a lack of carbon monoxide intoxication. Although severe anemia can theoretically result in anemic hypoxia, vulnerable pallidal lesions have rarely been described in anemic patients. Interestingly, both patients shared common conditions associated with atherosclerosis, including heavy smoking, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and a history of coronary artery bypass grafting for ischemic heart disease. Anemic hypoxia may cause pallidal involvement in atherosclerotic patients with multiple risk factors.
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias and autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegias are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with diverse neurological and non-neurological features. We herein describe a Japanese patient with a slowly progressive form of ataxia and spastic paraplegia. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a novel homozygous frameshift mutation in SPG7, encoding paraplegin, in this patient. This is the first report of an SPG7 mutation in the Japanese population. For disorders previously undetected in a particular population, or unrecognized/atypical phenotypes, exome sequencing may facilitate molecular diagnosis.
A 71-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) receiving treatment with azacitidine developed extensive watery diarrhea for three consecutive days. As a result of high-grade dehydration, the patient was urgently admitted to the hospital and fluid replacement therapy was initiated. However, the patient's diarrhea did not improve. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 was detected in a fecal culture. On the fourth day, the patient died due to circulatory collapse. An autopsy revealed extensive necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139-induced diarrheal disease often develops in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and has a serious clinical course. We herein report a fatal outcome of Vibrio cholerae O67 infection in an immunocompromised MDS patient.
We herein report the first case of septic arthritis caused by rmpA-positive hypermucoviscous community-acquired K. pneumoniae that followed urosepsis in a 65-year-old Japanese woman. The patient responded well to drainage of the abscesses and treatment with cefazolin. Although this virulent phenotype of K. pneumoniae has been primarily reported in Hong Kong, we confirmed that 18/50 isolates obtained in our hospital over the past five years displayed the hypermucoviscous phenotype. Therefore, clinicians should consider the possibility of an increasing prevalence of rmpA-positive hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae infection in Japan and be particularly vigilant for invasive clinical manifestations, even in patients with urinary tract infections.