Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Volume 52 , Issue 14
Showing 1-26 articles out of 26 articles from the selected issue
EDITORIAL
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Kazuro Chiba, Terumi Kamisawa, Taku Tabata, Seiichi Hara, Sawako Kurum ...
    2013 Volume 52 Issue 14 Pages 1545-1551
    Published: 2013
    Released: July 15, 2013
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective To elucidate the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF).
    Methods IgG4-related RF was diagnosed when all of the following three criteria were fulfilled: retroperitoneal soft tissue masses surrounding the aorta and/or adjacent tissues, elevation of the serum IgG4 levels, and abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in at least one organ or site. Ten patients were diagnosed as having IgG4-related RF.
    Results The mean age at diagnosis was 70.1 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:0.6. Only two patients had initial symptoms predominantly related to RF (back pain and edema of the lower extremities), while the remaining eight patients reported initial symptoms due to associated diseases. On laboratory examination, a severe inflammatory reaction was observed in one patient. Elevation of the levels of serum IgG and IgE, eosinophilia and positivity of antinuclear antibodies were detected in seven, five, two and seven patients, respectively. The retroperitoneal masses were detected primarily in the left renal hilus in four patients, in the periaortic region in five patients and in both regions in one patient. Hydronephrosis was present in five patients. The histological diagnosis was confirmed in the retroperitoneal masses (resection, n=1 biopsy, n=2) and extraretroperitoneal lesions (n=7). Twenty-four other IgG4-related diseases were found to be associated with IgG4-related RF in nine patients (autoimmune pancreatitis (n=2), sialadenitis (n=4), dacryoadenitis (n=5), lymphadenopathy (n=9), pulmonary pseudotumor (n=1) and pituitary pseudotumor (n=1)). Seven patients underwent steroid therapy, all of whom responded well and showed no instances relapse.
    Conclusion IgG4-related RF has several clinical characteristic features. Our diagnostic criteria may be helpful in obtaining a correct diagnosis.
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  • Yasuyuki Tomiyama, Kazuyuki Takenaka, Takahiro Kodama, Miwa Kawanaka, ...
    2013 Volume 52 Issue 14 Pages 1553-1559
    Published: 2013
    Released: July 15, 2013
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is critical in the management of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), since the prognosis of PBC has improved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCC development affects the prognosis of PBC and to identify the risk factors for HCC in Japanese patients with PBC.
    Methods We compared the survival rates between patients with HCC and those without and analyzed the risk factors for HCC development in 210 patients with PBC who were followed up for a median period of 8.5 years.
    Results HCC developed during follow-up in 11 patients (5.2%) and was diagnosed simultaneously at the time of diagnosis of PBC in five patients (2.4%) who were excluded from the analysis. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant difference in overall survival between the patients who did and did not develop HCC (p<0.001). A multivariate analysis revealed age (OR: 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.13, p=0.001), the albumin level (OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.10-0.56, p=0.001), the total bilirubin level (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.09-2.36, p=0.017) and HCC development (OR: 2.97, 95% CI: 1.24-7.15, p=0.015) to be significant prognostic factors and identified only an advanced histological stage (Scheuer's classification III or IV, OR: 6.27, 95% CI: 1.80-21.83, p=0.004) to be a risk factor associated with HCC.
    Conclusion HCC development significantly affects the survival of patients with PBC, and an advanced histological stage is the only risk factor associated with HCC development. These results highlight the important role of liver fibrosis in hepatocarcinogenesis in patients with PBC.
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  • Shin-ichiro Taira, Michio Shimabukuro, Moritake Higa, Kouichi Yabiku, ...
    2013 Volume 52 Issue 14 Pages 1561-1571
    Published: 2013
    Released: July 15, 2013
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective In addition to excess visceral fat, lipid deposition in the liver and skeletal muscle has been implicated in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to explore the relationship between hepatic and muscular lipid deposition and visceral fat accumulation in 105 middle-aged men with metabolic syndrome.
    Methods Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was used to simultaneously evaluate the visceral fat area (VFA) and CT Hounsfield unit (HU) values of three different portions of skeletal muscle and the liver.
    Results A significant inverse correlation was observed between the VFA and the CT HU values of the iliopsoas muscle, back muscle, rectus abdominis muscle and liver. Three types of interventions, i.e., lifestyle modification and treatment with antidiabetic drugs, such as Pioglitazone or Miglitol, caused significant decreases in visceral fat accumulation. The extent of lipid deposition in the liver was strongly correlated with the levels of glucose-lipid metabolic markers, which decreased significantly following Pioglitazone treatment. On the other hand, the amount of lipid deposition in the three skeletal muscles and the liver did not decrease after Miglitol treatment.
    Conclusion Visceral fat accumulation is accompanied by excess lipid deposition in skeletal muscle and the liver in patients with metabolic syndrome. The CT-based simultaneous, concise evaluations of ectopic lipid deposition and visceral fat mass used in the present study may provide unique information for assessing cardiometabolic risks and the therapeutic impact in patients with diabetes-obesity syndrome.
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  • Bingjun Zhang, Kefeng Lv, Jian Bao, Ciyong Lu, Zhengqi Lu
    2013 Volume 52 Issue 14 Pages 1573-1578
    Published: 2013
    Released: July 15, 2013
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective It is difficult to make the differential diagnosis between tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) when the smear is negative. The objective of this study was to create a diagnostic rule for differentiating TBM from CM in adult HIV-negative patients based on clinical and laboratory features.
    Methods The clinical and laboratory data of 219 adult HIV-negative patients satisfying the diagnostic criteria for tuberculous (n=100) and cryptococcal (n=119) meningitis hospitalized at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University during the period 2000-2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Features found to be independently predictive of tuberculous meningitis were modeled using a multivariate logistic regression to create a diagnostic rule. The performance of the diagnostic rule was assessed using a prospective test data method.
    Results Six factors were found to be predictive of a diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: gender, mental disorders, vision and/or hearing damage, proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, the total cerebrospinal fluid white cell count and the coexistence of tuberculosis in peripheral organs. The diagnostic rule developed using these features exhibited 78.0% sensitivity, 95.2% specificity, 92.9% positive predictive value and 84.4% negative predictive value. The corresponding values for the diagnostic rule were 70.0% and 88.0% using prospective test data.
    Conclusion Clinical and laboratory features can be helpful in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis in adult HIV-negative patients.
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