Objective PPARγ agonists are widely used in type 2 diabetic patients to reduce insulin resistance. Recently, telmisartan, an AT1 receptor antagonist, was reported to function as a partial agonist of PPARγ based on in vitro experiments. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the PPARγ enhancing activity of telmisartan is exerted clinically in diabetic patients. Methods We compared the effects of telmisartan with those of candesartan, on insulin sensitivity, the serum levels of various adipocytokines and oxidative stress. Patients In total, 85 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension, maintained on 8 mg per day of candesartan, were randomly assigned to the TM group (candesartan switched to 40 mg of telmisartan, n=38) or the CD group (no treatment change, n=47). Results After 3 months, oxidized lipids were significantly decreased only in the TM group. Although the homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance (HOMA-R) tended to be improved and serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol and HMW adiponectin tended to be increased only in the TM group, these alterations were too small to be significant by unpaired t-test. Interestingly, in subgroup analysis, the alterations of HOMA-R, serum concentrations of oxidized lipids, and HMW adiponectin were more apparent in obese TM group subjects and the changes reached statistical significance. Conclusion Switching from candesartan to telmisartan in obese subjects increases serum adiponectin and improves both insulin resistance and oxidative stress, while these effects were not statistically apparent in the total patient population. These results support the idea that telmisartan exerts its PPARγ enhancing activity clinically in obese type 2 diabetic patients.
Objective This study evaluated the effect of peripheral lymphocyte count on 2 interferon-gamma release assays [QuantiFERON TB-Gold (QFT-G) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT)] and their sensitivity in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, including HIV-negative immunocompromised patients. Patients and Methods Two hundred thirty patients with microbiologically confirmed active pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to the tests. Lymphocyte counts were analyzed simultaneously. Results Overall sensitivity was 74% (159/215; 95% CI, 68-80%) for QFT-G and 92% (198/215; 89-96%) for ELISPOT (p<0.0001). In patients with peripheral lymphocyte counts of ≥1000/μL, sensitivity was high for both QFT-G (88%, 111/126; 82-94%) and ELISPOT (97%, 122/126; 94-100%). However, the sensitivity decreased significantly with decreasing peripheral lymphocyte count for both QFT-G (test for trend p<0.0001) and ELISPOT (test for trend p=0.007). When lymphocyte counts were <500/μL, the sensitivity was 81% (25/31; 66-96%) for ELISPOT, but only 39% (12/31; 21-57%) for QFT-G. Conclusion Both QFT-G and ELISPOT are sensitive methods for detecting active pulmonary tuberculosis, but their sensitivity partly depends on peripheral lymphocyte counts. At low lymphocyte count conditions, ELISPOT is superior to QFT-G for detecting tuberculosis, irrespective of age, gender, and nutrition.
Objective The novel anthracycline agent amrubicin, has been approved in Japan to treat small and non-small cell lung cancers (SCLC and NSCLC). The present study evaluates the toxicity and effect of amrubicin especially in elderly patients with previously treated lung cancer. Patients and Methods This retrospective study analyzed data from 51 patients (<70 years of age, n=29; ≥70 years of age, n=22) with lung cancer (NSCLC, n=21; SCLC, n=30) who were treated with amrubicin at our hospital, between July 2003 and October 2009. All patients had recurrent or refractory lung cancer after one or more chemotherapy regimens. We compared the outcomes of patients younger and older than 70 years of age. Amrubicin (30-40 mg/m2/day) was infused depending on patient performance status and laboratory data over a period of 5 minutes on days 1-3, with courses repeated at intervals of at least 3 weeks. The dose was modified according to myelosuppression. Results The mean number of treatment cycles, mean dose and mean interval of amrubicin administration did not significantly differ between patients aged <70 and ≥70 years. The rate of hematological toxicities (≥ Grade 3) also did not significantly differ between the two age groups (leukopenia, 48.3% and 59.1% for age <70 and ≥70 years, p=0.573; neutropenia, 65.5% vs. 77.3%, p=0.536; anemia, 20.7% vs. 22.7%, p=1.000; thrombocytopenia, 13.8% vs. 31.8%, p=0.173). The incidence of grade 2-4 non-hematological toxicities also did not significantly differ between the groups. The response rate of SCLC and disease control rate of NSCLC were similar in the younger and older groups. Conclusion Amrubicin monotherapy might be equally tolerated by elderly and younger patients. Further studies are needed to investigate the benefit of amrubicin monotherapy among elderly patients with previously treated lung cancer.
A 15-year-old boy without structural heart disease was admitted for the treatment of frequent episodes of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). Left ventricular mapping revealed that the origin of PVC was at the posterior papillary muscle. Diastolic small potentials were observed during sinus rhythm with a constant interval following QRS beats. This potential eventually coupled with the ventricular myocardium, resulting in the generation of PVC, and thus preceded QRS by 31 msec. Catheter ablation to this site induced non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, followed by transient ventricular fibrillation. Repeated application of radiofrequency energy eliminated PVC accompanied by the split of the diastolic potential.
Acute renal failure associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection is already well recognized. Nevertheless, end-stage chronic renal failure and falciparum malaria comorbidity is a rare condition. We report a case of Plasmodium falciparum infection in a young male Javanese patient with end-stage chronic renal failure who underwent regular hemodialysis. This rare comorbidity led to rapid deterioration of consciousness and metabolic disturbances which had already existed in end-stage renal failure. Because of the immunosuppressive condition due to organ failure, the patient did not survive despite anti-malarial chemotherapy.
We report an autopsy case of treatment by absorbable gelatin sponge and microcoil embolization after perforation of the distal coronary artery by guidewire. Histological examination revealed a foreign body granuloma in the coronary artery with embolization. Foreign body reaction to absorbable gelatin sponge seemed to be stronger than that to the microcoil.
The postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of fatal ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS). We describe a 20-year-old female with LQTS who experienced aborted cardiac arrest during the postpartum period. Genetic screening identified a KCNE1 D85N variant, which has been reported to be a LQTS-causing gene variant, in the patient and her younger sister, whose QT interval was also prolonged. Since the allele frequency of this variant is almost 1%, it may be important to clarify whether such variant carriers indeed have an increased risk of fatal ventricular tachyarrhythmias during the postpartum period.
A 62-year-old diabetic woman suffering from high fever was admitted to our hospital. She had a lower abdominal phantom tumor and hyperglycemia. The results of urine analysis showed hematuria and bacteriuria. X-ray and computed tomography revealed gas accumulation in the wall of the bladder. Escherichia coli was identified in urine culture. On the basis of the lack of urine output and the identification of residual urine on catheterization, a diagnosis of emphysematous cystitis with diabetic neurogenic bladder was established. The patient recovered after discontinuation of urinary drainage, intensive insulin therapy, and antibiotic therapy.
A 45-year-old man was hospitalized because of weight loss, finger tremor, thirst, polydipsia and increased urinary frequency. He was diagnosed with Graves' disease (GD) and central diabetes insipidus (CDI). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the enlarged posterior pituitary with thickened stalk. Histological examination obtained from biopsy of the pituitary revealed lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis. He received treatment with thiamazole (MMI) for GD and desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) for CDI. However, DDAVP administration could be discontinued as GD was gradually improved. This course indicates that not only the recovered renal response to arginine-vasopressin but also the immunomodulative effects of MMI might attribute to the improvement of polyuria.
We report a rare case of thrombosis in the inferior vena cava (IVC) due to enlarged cysts in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. A 71-year-old woman visited our hospital with a complaint of rapid left lower extremity swelling. Computed tomography (CT) revealed massive thrombosis from the IVC to the bilateral common iliac vein. The extrinsic mechanical stress of renal cysts to the IVC seemed to have induced thrombosis in the vein that resulted in the cause of severe edema in the left lower extremity. Her renal cysts were percutaneously punctured for the relief of compression and she received injection of 99.5% ethanol for prevention against reaccumulation of cyst fluid after IVC filter had been positioned. The edema of her left lower extremity improved temporarily, however, follow-up CT two months after cyst puncture showed reaccumulation of the fluid. Therefore, excision of the responsible cyst wall by open surgery was carried out.
Selective right pulmonary arteriography and 3-dimensional computed tomography revealed multiple severe stenoses of the peripheral pulmonary artery associated with poststenotic aneurysms in a 65-year-old woman. She was referred to the hospital for evaluation of dry cough, gradually increasing dyspnea and multiple nodular shadows on a chest radiograph. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization showed severe pulmonary hypertension, though other structural heart diseases or well-characterized congenital syndromes were ruled out. She was diagnosed as isolated peripheral pulmonary artery branch stenosis. Recent advances in CT technology enable a less-invasive assessment of pulmonary artery, and can be useful in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
A 36-year-old man with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by autoimmune hemolytic anemia underwent immunosuppressive treatment. After showing a low-grade fever for two days, his fever spiked. He was confirmed to have pandemic (H1N1) 2009 by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). His condition deteriorated to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and mechanical ventilation became necessary. The lowest PaO2/FIO2 ratio was 77, and he was placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Based on our observation, the emergency use of ECMO in addition to peramivir might be useful. A noteworthy point is that once ARDS deteriorates due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009, intensive supportive care should be started.
Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is a highly aggressive lymphoproliferative disease. An appropriate therapeutic strategy for ANKL remains to be established, but a few case reports have suggested that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) can be curative. Here, we report a young woman with ANKL showing central nervous system (CNS) invasion, who has been in complete remission for more than a year after allo-HCT following two courses of intravenous chemotherapy and several rounds of intrathecal chemotherapy. Intensive remission induction chemotherapy followed by conventional myeloablative allo-HCT is a promising approach for long-term remission in cases of this aggressive malignancy.
A 56-year-old man with rheumatoid arthritis developed emotional lability and myoclonic seizure in the left arm, followed by fever and generalized convulsion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed leptomeningeal lesions with abnormal enhancement. MRI lesions were localized predominantly in the right cerebral subarachnoid spaces. Electroencephalogram showed epileptogenic focus at the right frontal and central points. After administration of valproate sodium improved convulsion and myoclonus, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-123I-iodoamphetamine was performed. Brain SPECT displayed hypoperfusion predominantly in the right cerebral hemisphere. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) disclosed mild pleocytosis and marked elevations of interleukin-6 levels. Repeated CSF analyses showed cytology of class I and negative results for infectious pathogens. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1 g for 3 days, iv) and subsequent prednisolone administration (daily 50 mg, po) ameliorated neurological symptoms dramatically. Prednisolone was tapered to 20 mg/day for 5 months. Leptomeningeal MRI lesions were attenuated gradually followed by restoration of cerebral hypoperfusion on SPECT. He was diagnosed as rheumatoid leptomeningitis (RLM). Although clinical features of RLM exhibited variable deficits of the central nervous system (CNS), MRI failed to detect the corresponding CNS lesions. We first highlighted neuroradiological changes of cerebral hypoperfusion and leptomeningeal lesions in RLM. These neuroimages of our patient supported that leptomeningeal inflammation and the adjacent cerebrocortical ischemia could cause encephalitis-like symptoms in RLM patients.