Objective We started an information technology (IT) system that encodes the medical treatment status of hepatitis B virrus (HBV) with a 9-digit number, automatically checks for inappropriate situations occurring due to immunosuppression and chemotherapy that do not comply with the flowchart of the hepatitis B countermeasure guideline, and promotes correct HBV medical treatment in our hospital. We conducted a prospective study of HBV reactivation using this system.
Methods Among 21,607 cases that were managed using this system, 1,206 patients who were HBs antigen-negative, HBc antibody- and/or HBs antibody-positive and in whom HBV DNA quantification was performed two times or more were examined for the occurrence of HBV reactivation. The study population included: malignant lymphoma patients using rituximab (n=40), patients with malignant tumors using anticancer agents (n=546), patients treated with steroids (n=274), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n=144), patients using immunosuppressants/biologics (n=26), and patients undergoing hepatitis C direct acting antiviral (DAA) treatment (n=176).
Results HBV reactivation was observed in 27 cases undergoing treatment with the following agents: rituximab (n=6), anticancer agents (n=8), steroids (n=10), anti-RA agents (n=1), and hepatitis C DAA (n=2). Among the 40 patients who were using rituximab, 6 (18.2%) showed a high rate of reactivation. In 10 in which HBV reactivation occurred at a median of 10 (range, 4-32) months after steroid administration, 6 occurred after the 7th month, and 1 patient showed HBs antigen positivity and severe hepatitis.
Conclusion Continuing of the operation of an automatic check system using coded medical information to check for the reactivation enabled this prospective study of HBV reactivation. Careful attention should be paid to patients using steroids, as well as malignant lymphoma patients who are treated with rituximab. The results of the present study suggest that the present IT encoding system would be useful for preventing HBV reactivation.
Objective Rifaximin has become available for treating hyperammonemia in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. This study analyzed the changes in the body composition and nutritional status after long-term rifaximin therapy.
Methods Twenty-one patients who underwent rifaximin therapy at 1,200 mg/day for more than 24 weeks were evaluated for the changes in the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) scores for the nutritional assessment, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) scores for the liver function assessment, and skeletal muscle index (SMI) for the body composition assessment.
Results There were 17 men and 4 women, with a mean age of 67.14±8.32 years. Eleven cases had a portosystemic shunt (52.3%), and 10 had hepatocellular carcinoma (47.6%). The Child-Pugh class was A in 9 cases (42.9%), B in 9 cases (42.9%), and C in 3 cases (14.2%). The blood ammonia levels in the rifaximin group improved significantly upon rifaximin therapy, from 124.76±28.68 μg/dL at baseline to 47.00±14.43 μg/dL after 2 weeks (p<0.001) and 49.81±15.02 μg/dL after 24 weeks (p<0.001). The CONUT scores improved significantly during rifaximin therapy, from 6.47±3.25 at baseline to 3.33±2.65 after 24 weeks (p=0.0007). The ALBI scores also improved significantly from -0.39±1.89 at baseline to -2.20±0.55 after 24 weeks (p=0.0002). The SMI scores showed that the body composition had been maintained in response to rifaximin therapy (50.20±7.67 at baseline and 51.29±7.62 after 24 weeks).
Conclusion Rifaximin administration for hepatic encephalopathy improved the CONUT and ALBI scores. It may have a secondary effect on the improvement in the nutritional status and hepatic reserve.
Objective Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a clinical radiological syndrome characterized by a reversible lesion of the splenium of the corpus callosum with a decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value. The clinical manifestations of RESLES are diverse.
Methods Fifteen cases of adult RESLES patients (10 males and 5 females) were retrospectively selected from the radiology system using the key word "corpus callosum" at a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital between May 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019. The possible precipitating factors, clinicoradiological findings and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on follow-up were then analyzed.
Results The patient ages ranged from 22 to 53 years old. The mean age was 34 years old. The most common neurological symptoms included headache (3/15), dizziness (3/15), first onset of seizure (3/15), paroxysmal blurred vision (2/15), vertigo (2/15), amnesia (2/15), and confused consciousness without seizure (2/15), followed by drowsiness (1/15), paresthesia (1/15), dysmetria (1/15) and dysarthria (1/15). The precipitating factors included infection, seizure, anti-epileptic treatment with levetiracetam, carbamazepine, valproate, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and rabies vaccine injection prior to the onset of RESLES. All cases were carefully followed up and had excellent prognoses.
Conclusion RESLES manifests as variety of symptoms with less specificity and precipitating factors. Paroxysmal blurred vision may be a relatively specific symptom of RESLES. Levetiracetam, carbamazepine or valproate could be the cause of RESLES, exposure to the rabies vaccine could be another predisposing factors for RESLES as well. RESLES type 1 was therefore found to be highly "reversible" with an excellent prognosis.
Objective To investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) unilateral ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim) thalamotomy for medication-refractory essential tremor (ET).
Methods We performed MRgFUS left-sided Vim thalamotomy for 10 medication-refractory ET patients (8 men and 2 women, aged 67.1±17.5 years, all right-handed). We followed them for 2 years using the clinical rating scale for tremor (CRST) and the quality of life in essential tremor questionnaire (QUEST).
Results Right-handed tremor improved immediately after the left Vim thalamotomy in all patients. The tremor became re-exacerbated in 2 patients by 6 months after treatment; however, an approximately 60% decrease in the average CRST score of the right hand persisted until 2 years. On the other hand, the average CRST score of the left hand and the average QUEST score showed no improvement. Headache was the most common adverse event during the sonication (8 patients), followed by a floating sensation (4 patients). On the other hand, sensory disturbances (4 patients) and gait instability (4 patients) were observed after the treatment, but most of them were mild and transient. There were no delayed adverse events.
Conclusion MRgFUS unilateral Vim thalamotomy could be adopted as one of the therapeutic options for intractable ET. Further improvement of tremor in the targeted hand or contralateral Vim thalamotomy may be necessary to improve the quality of life.
Objective We investigated the continuation rate, safety and efficacy of treatment with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in a retrospective cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a Japanese municipal hospital.
Methods All of the patients with SLE who started treatment with HCQ were included in this study. A retrospective chart review was performed. Our primary outcomes were the continuation rate of HCQ treatment for 1 year and adverse events (AEs) during the treatment. We also investigated the efficacy of HCQ treatment in cases in which treatment with immunosuppressive therapies remained unchanged for the preceding six months.
Results Forty-seven patients with SLE were included in this study. Twenty-five patients (53.2%) had AEs. Eleven (64.7%) of the 17 patients who tried the readministration of HCQ could continue HCQ treatment. The continuation rate of HCQ for a period of 1 year was 78.3% (36 of 46 patients). The development of cutaneous lesions was the most frequent adverse event (25.5%) followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (8.5%). In the 16 cases in which the immunosuppressive therapies remained unchanged for at least six months prior to starting HCQ treatment, the SLE disease activity index, anti-DNA antibody, immune complex, and serum complement activity significantly decreased over a period of 1 year, while the prednisolone dose significantly decreased.
Conclusion The continuation rate of HCQ treatment was high in an SLE cohort of a Japanese municipal hospital. Although more than half of the patients experienced AEs, the readministration of HCQ was often successful. HCQ treatment provided benefits regarding the clinical and immunological findings in Japanese patients with SLE, which would likely lead to glucocorticoid tapering.
A 26-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to upper abdominal pain. He had previously been diagnosed with gastroduodenal ulcer at 23 and 25 years old and had been treated with proton-pump inhibitors. Endoscopic hemostasis and a biopsy were performed on the hemorrhagic gastroduodenal ulcers. Laboratory and pathologic examinations demonstrated elevated serum IgG4 levels and the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into the gastroduodenal tissues. Based on the clinicopathologic findings and after excluding other causes, he was diagnosed with IgG4-related gastroduodenal ulcer. We herein report a rare case of IgG4-related disease manifesting as a gastroduodenal ulcer diagnosed by an endoscopic biopsy.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors can affect any organ, including the salivary glands. A case of Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) induced by nivolumab for the treatment of gastric cancer is herein presented. Nivolumab treatment caused marked tumor shrinkage, but xerostomia developed after two cycles. It took 3 months after symptom onset to confirm the diagnosis of SjS. Prednisolone and pilocarpine hydrochloride did not relieve the symptoms. SjS is a relatively rare immune-related adverse event that might sometimes be overlooked. Since SjS can severely impair a patient's quality of life, oncologists should not miss any signs of salivary gland hypofunction and cooperate with specialists for SjS.
A 70-year-old woman was referred to our department due to a solitary mediastinal tumor which gradually grew near the site of anastomosis for 8 years after radical surgery of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. It was difficult to distinguish the lymph node recurrence of esophageal cancer from another tumor of unknown primary origin. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration was performed, and the tumor was diagnosed to be neuroendocrine carcinoma. She received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with etoposide plus cisplatin. After the completion of chemoradiotherapy, the tumor disappeared. A solitary growing tumor which develops after radical resection of cancer would be better to be examined histologically in order to make an accurate diagnosis and select the most appropriate treatment.
We report a 71-year-old man with non-B non-C chronic liver damage who had been regularly visiting our hospital since he was 38 years of age. He underwent three partial hepatectomies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed at 65, 67, and 71 years of age, respectively. A histopathological examination showed moderately-differentiated HCC, and chronic hepatitis with mild fibrosis stage in non-tumor areas. alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and PIVKAII were not useful for the early prediction of HCC, but TERT promotor mutation (C228T) in serum cell-free DNA was useful. This is the first report on the importance of long-term follow-up in non-B non-C chronic liver damage, regardless of the fibrosis stage.
We herein report the case of a 47-year-old woman who was admitted with weakness and numbness of the limbs and dyspnea after being infected with influenza virus A. She had a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) 7 years prior to this presentation. On admission, she was in shock, and transthoracic echocardiography showed severely reduced left-ventricular function. She was diagnosed with fulminant myocarditis by an endomyocardial biopsy, which was complicated by GBS. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required to manage the cardiogenic shock. After her condition improved, immunoadsorption for GBS was performed, and the motor and sensory disorders gradually improved.
A 53-year-old woman presented with bone pain and was diagnosed with osteomalacia because of hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphatasemia, bone pain, and radiographic findings. Because her intact-fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels were high and contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a mass in the anterior ethmoid sinus, FGF23-related osteomalacia was diagnosed. The tumor was resected, but she developed hypercalcemia and elevated blood parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) was diagnosed, and surgical resection was performed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a FGF23-producing tumor complicated by PHPT. Because PHPT manifested after resecting the FGF23-producing tumor, FGF23 is thus considered to suppress PTH secretion in humans.
Mysterin, which was recently shown to play an important role in maintaining cellular fat storage, has been identified to be the susceptibility gene for moyamoya disease (MMD). We encountered some female Japanese patients with partial lipodystrophy and MMD-like vascular lesions. This prompted us to examine whether mysterin variants may be present in these patients. We identified a mysterin variant, p.R4810K in two patients with MMD-like vascular lesions, who may fit the category of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) 1. Our cases suggest the possibility that p.R4810K, in addition to atherogenic risk factors, might thus play a role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions in patients with FPLD1 and p.R4810K.
Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (APAP) is caused by macrophage dysfunction due to anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibody. We experienced 2 cases of APAP complicated with sarcoidosis in a 42-year-old woman and a 51-year-old man (age at the sarcoidosis diagnosis). APAP preceded sarcoidosis in the woman, and both diseases were diagnosed simultaneously in the man. Sarcoidosis lesions were observed in the lung, skin, and eyes, and the pathological findings of APAP were not marked at the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in either case. Low-grade positive serum anti-GM-CSF autoantibody was suspected to be correlated with the occurrence of sarcoidosis and resolution of APAP.
Pulmonary cryptococcosis develops not only in immunocompromised patients but also in immunocompetent patients. However, lymph node involvement is relatively rare in immunocompetent patients. We herein report the case of an 80-year-old man who was not in an apparent immunocompromised state but was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The patient was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole monotherapy; thus, his lung lesions significantly worsened. He eventually responded well to a combination therapy of amphotericin B and flucytosine, which was administered according to the treatment strategy for disseminated diseases.
Anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1γ (anti-TIF1γ) antibody-positive dermatomyositis (DM) is strongly associated with cancer, although the mechanism of action is still unclear. We herein describe the first known case of an 80-year-old woman diagnosed with TIF1γ-positive primary pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) coexisting with anti-TIF1γ antibody-positive DM. The diagnosis of LELC can only be made by a surgical lung biopsy, and not by a computed tomography-guided biopsy, because of heavy lymphocytic infiltration. This instructive case reaffirmed the importance of active screening for malignancy in patients with anti-TIF1γ antibody-positive DM. Interestingly, the results also suggested that the strong relationship which exists between anti-TIF1γ antibody-positive DM and cancer is potentially caused by tumor-derived TIF1γ.
Monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL) is a primary intestinal T-cell lymphoma and other organ involvement is very rare. A rare case of MEITL involving the lung and brain is herein reported. The patient developed panperitonitis with a small intestinal perforation, and emergency surgery was performed. The pathological findings from the surgical specimens demonstrated atypical lymphoid cells which were positive for CD3, CD8, and CD56. Moreover, the pathological findings of lung specimens taken by bronchoscopy were consistent with those of the small intestine. It is therefore important to include the possibility of MEITL in the differential diagnosis of cancer patients.
We encountered a patient with multiple myeloma treated with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) who developed repeated episodes of enteritis but regressed spontaneously. An endoscopic examination revealed no abnormalities, but biopsy specimens showed massive infiltration of CD4+ and Epstein-Barr encoding region (EBER+) abnormal lymphocytes in which a high copy number of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) genomes was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). EBV infection was exclusively detected in CD4+ T-cells, leading to a diagnosis of EBV-positive CD4+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). This case suggests that an immediate biopsy and examinations, including qPCR for EBV DNA, should be considered for patients with recurrent enteritis after autologous HSCT, regardless of endoscopic findings.
Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) is an important cause of thrombocytopenia. A 73-year-old man with relapsed rectal carcinoma received S-1, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab combination therapy (SOX+Bev). Dexamethasone was administered as an antiemetic prophylaxis. On day 2 of the first cycle, thrombocytopenia (8,000/μL) was observed. We sequentially omitted any drugs suspected to possibly induce thrombocytopenia and confirmed dexamethasone as the cause of thrombocytopenia. DITP induced by synthetic corticosteroids is very rare and this is the first case report of DITP induced by dexamethasone. Although rare, DITP due to synthetic corticosteroids including dexamethasone should be a differential diagnosis among patients receiving synthetic corticosteroids with thrombocytopenia.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a non-hemolytic adverse reaction that occurs ≤6 hours after receiving a transfusion. A 72-year-old man with leukemia developed severe hypoxemia after platelet transfusions on two occasions within a 4-day period. During the first episode, the transfused platelet preparation was positive for anti-human-leukocyte antigen antibodies. The pathogenesis of TRALI includes an antibody-mediated mechanism and a non-antibody-mediated mechanism, in which various factors combine to activate pulmonary neutrophils. In our case, it is considered that the patient's neutrophils reached the activation threshold for the development of TRALI after the accumulation of various factors besides anti-leukocyte antibodies.
A 51-year-old man developed a sudden headache during golf practice, followed by a high fever. He was admitted with suspected neutrophilic meningitis and was diagnosed with chemical meningitis caused by a dermoid cyst rupture based on the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, which showed multiple lipid droplets in his ventricle and cistern. His repetitive golf-swing motion was suggested to be the cause of his dermoid cyst rupture. On MRI, the lipid droplets appeared to have migrated by gravity because of the body position. Therefore, the body position should be considered to prevent obstructive hydrocephalus by lipid droplets after a dermoid cyst rupture.
A 61-year-old Japanese man with the pure spinal form of cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis developed dysesthesia of the lower limbs and gait disturbance at 57 years of age. At 61 years old, he was unable to walk without support. A neurological examination showed spasticity and sensory disturbance in the lower limbs. Spinal MRI showed long hyperintense lesions involving the lateral and posterior funiculus in the cervical and thoracic cord on T2-weighted images. His serum cholestanol level was markedly elevated. A CYP27A1 gene analysis identified two missense variants, p.R474W, and a novel p.R262C variant. Combination therapy with chenodeoxycholic acid and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase decreased his serum cholestanol level.
Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an important cause of headache mainly associated with spinal cerebrospinal fluid leakage. We herein report the case of a 51-year-old man who developed SIH after swimming. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a transient high-intensity lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC), in addition to bilateral subdural hematomas (SDH) and pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage on brain computed tomography. The splenial lesion disappeared and SDH improved after an epidural blood patch. This case emphasizes that transient SCC lesions could coexist with SIH and that SIH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of SCC lesions.
The relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and intracerebral hemorrhage remains unclear. We herein report a case of severe COVID-19 pneumonia complicated by multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MSICH). The patient died eight days after the episode of MSICH. No apparent coagulopathy was observed; however, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and anticoagulation might have caused the occurrence of MSICH. Laboratory findings showed hypercoagulability, suggesting that thrombotic etiologies, such as sinus thrombosis or cerebral infarction, might also have caused MSICH. MSICH can occur as a fatal complication of COVID-19, and this should be considered when providing treatment.
A 46-year-old man with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) presented with obliterative phlebitis of the lower legs with a deteriorated renal function, and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase and ataxia levels. Examinations demonstrated tubulointerstitial nephritis, obliterative phlebitis and lymphadenopathy with IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate and sclerosing cholangitis. Although the serological profile and central nerve system involvement were compatible for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a definite diagnosis of SLE was difficult to make. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) with KS was finally diagnosed, and high dose prednisolone with intravenous cyclophosphamide was initiated and thereafter the patient demonstrated a prompt improvement. This is the first known case demonstrating overlapping IgG4-RD with lupus-like serological and neurological features in a patient with KS, thus highlighting the pathogenic role with the genomic background for IgG4-RD and SLE.
A 65-year-old Japanese woman, who was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome with various autoantibodies including anti-DNA antibody, developed bullous pemphigoid (BP) and hematological abnormalities like lupus erythematosus after adalimumab therapy. The discontinuation of adalimumab resolved those disorders but polyarthritis thereafter relapsed. The introduction of abatacept was not effective, but tocilizumab was found to be effective for polyarthritis, however, thereafter both bullous disease and severe pancytopenia developed. Discontinuation of tocilizumab was effective, but polyarthritis again developed, and baricitinib resolved it. There is an increasing number of reports of drug-induced BP and lupus erythematosus, and biologics might trigger an alteration in the pathophysiological/clinical course of rheumatic disorder.
Amiodarone, prescribed for cardiac conditions, including dysrhythmia, is associated with bradycardia. However, few reports have demonstrated that bradycardia is observed when amiodarone is used in combination with sofosbuvir, a direct-acting antiviral drug for chronic hepatitis C. We herein report the case of a male patient in his 70s with chronic atrial fibrillation and prostatic hyperplasia and was also taking amiodarone, who experienced severe bradycardia and syncope a day after taking sofosbuvir and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. After discontinuing amiodarone, ribavirin, and sofosbuvir, bradycardia did not recur. Therefore, we must consider drug interactions between amiodarone and sofosbuvir in patients with severe bradycardia.
We herein report on two male patients (age, 22 and 44 years) who were referred to our department with swelling of the upper right arm after attending other hospitals. Right subclavian vein thrombosis was demonstrated by ultrasonography and they were then further evaluated by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Successful treatment involved venous thrombectomy in one patient and anticoagulant therapy in the other. Paget-Schhroetter syndrome was confirmed using standard vascular ultrasonography. Despite the accuracy of this method for diagnosing Paget-Schroetter syndrome, some cases are difficult to confirm. We reviewed 29 previously published case reports of Paget-Schroetter syndrome and analyzed the patient baseline characteristics, time to diagnosis, and the diagnostic methods used.
A 30-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of pain in his proximal extremities. The pain mimicked polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and it temporarily improved by a low dose of glucocorticoids, but his symptoms relapsed many times. After six years of glucocorticoid treatment, he developed abdominal pain and ascites, for which he was diagnosed with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM). His PMR-like symptoms improved with cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy for MPM. Finally, we diagnosed this PMR-like syndrome to be paraneoplastic syndrome with MPM. Although cases of MPM complicated by PMR-like syndrome are rare, MPM should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis.