Objective To compare the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with rebamipide versus PPIs alone for the treatment of ulcers after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Methods PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and China Naitonal Knowledge Infrastructure were searched up to the end of October 2013 in order to identify all randomized controlled trials reporting the effects of PPIs plus rebamipide on healing ulcers after ESD. The outcome measurement was complete ulcer healing. Results A total of six studies involving 724 patients were included. The pooled data suggested a significantly higher rate of ulcer healing after endoscopic therapy among patients treated with PPIs plus rebamipide than among those treated with PPIs alone [odds ratio (OR)=2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68-3.44]. The subgroup analysis showed PPI plus rebamipide therapy to be more effective in healing ESD-induced ulcers than treatment with PPIs alone after both four (OR=2.22, 95%CI: 1.53-3.24) and eight weeks of treatment (OR=3.19, 95%CI: 1.22-8.31). In addition, the combination therapy was found to be significantly more effective than the use of PPIs alone for all ESD ulcers greater than 20 mm in size (OR=4.77, 95%CI: 2.22-10.26). There were no significant differences between the treatment groups with regard to ulcer location (low, middle or upper stomach) or the presence of absence of H. pylori infection. No serious adverse events were observed in either group. Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest that treatment with PPIs plus rebamipide is superior to PPI monotherapy for healing ESD-induced ulcers over four weeks, particularly large ulcers. However, more well-designed trials are needed to confirm these findings.
Objective Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) is a liver-specific mitochondrial matrix enzyme and potential biomarker of liver fibrosis. This study investigated the OCT levels in patients with chronic liver disease with or without cirrhosis in order to assess the usefulness of OCT as a biomarker of cirrhosis. Methods The subjects included 440 Japanese patients with chronic liver disease and 80 control subjects. The patients were divided into two groups, those with and without cirrhosis, both of which were further stratified into high-OCT and low-OCT subgroups. Results In the non-cirrhosis group, the patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), alcoholic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) comprised the high-OCT subgroup, while the patients with hepatitis B, hepatitis C and autoimmune hepatitis formed the low-OCT subgroup. There were significant differences in the OCT levels, OCT/aspartate aminotransferase ratios and OCT/alanine transaminase (ALT) ratios between these two subgroups (p<0.001). The same findings were observed in the cirrhosis group. The OCT levels were markedly higher in the cirrhosis group than in the non-cirrhosis group, particularly among the patients with PSC (p<0.001). The most useful biomarker for predicting cirrhosis was the OCT/ALT ratio in the patients with hepatitis C and NASH and the OCT level in patients with PSC. Conclusion The OCT level differs among patients with different chronic liver diseases. The role of OCT should be further evaluated in order to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases. The OCT level is a useful surrogate marker of cirrhosis, particularly in PSC patients.
Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fatty liver disease (FLD) and cerebrovascular disease. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 76 consecutive healthy subjects who participated in a two-day hospitalized health checkup program. The maximal intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery and bifurcation of the carotid artery as well as the plaque score (PS) were evaluated on carotid artery ultrasonography. Fluid attenuated inversion recovery brain MRI was used to determine the presence of asymptomatic cerebral lesions and periventricular hyperintensity. Brain MR angiography was used to evaluate the degree of intracranial main artery stenosis (ICAS). FLD was diagnosed based on the ultrasonographic pattern. Results The PS and IMT did not differ between the FLD (n=24) and non-FLD (n=52) groups. There was a tendency toward a higher percentage of multiple lacunar lesions in the non-FLD group than in the FLD group. ICAS was significantly more frequent in subjects in the FLD group than those in the non-FLD group (25.0% vs. 5.8%). A logistic regression analysis revealed that age and FLD were significant determinants of ICAS. Conclusion Our study findings suggest a significant association between ICAS and FLD.
Objective We sought to perform a propensity score-matched lesion-based comparison of mid-term angiographic outcomes of sirolimus- (SES, Cypher Bx Velocity) and paclitaxel- (PES, TAXUS Liberté, the 2nd-generation TAXUS) eluting stents to treat de novo coronary stenosis and, particularly, in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in a daily practice environment. Methods The present study was a non-randomized, retrospective, lesion-based, single center study that included 1,287 de novo native coronary stenosis cases after successful SES or PES placement between February 2007 and April 2011. The primary endpoint was angiographic-based binary in-stent restenosis (% diameter stenosis >50 at secondary angiogram) within 550 days of placement. A propensity score-matched analysis was used to adjust the baselines. Results Among 360 baseline-adjusted angiographic lesions followed up in each arm, the incidence of the primary endpoint in the PES group (11.7%, follow-up period: 350±76 days) was not significantly different from that in the SES group (10.3%, p=0.645, 354±81 days, p=0.912). PES was not associated with the primary endpoint by logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-1.93, p=0.605). In the DM specific sub-analysis, the primary endpoint in the PES group (19.6%) was not significantly different from that in the SES group (12.8%, p=0.105) in 148 baseline-adjusted lesions in each arm. Conclusion The mid-term angiographic outcomes after TAXUS Liberté placement for all-comer de novo native coronary stenosis and in patients with DM were not significantly different from those of SES in a Japanese daily practice environment.
Objective A link between urinary albumin excretion and an increased incidence of cardiovascular mortality has already been demonstrated. However, the reported prevalence of microalbuminuria (MAU) in patients with hypertension is highly variable. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional multicenter study to investigate the prevalence of urinary albumin excretion in treated hypertensive patients in our current practice. Methods A total of 1,258 hypertensive patients were enrolled in this study. Patients with macroalbuminuria were excluded. The concentrations of urinary microalbumin and creatinine were measured. Urinary albumin excretion was expressed as the ratio of albumin to creatinine excretion. Results The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 130.9±12.7 mmHg and 74.7±8.9 mmHg, respectively. The overall prevalence of MAU was 42.8%, and it was observed in 35.8% of patients treated with a single medication. Patients with polyvascular disease exhibited a higher prevalence of MAU compared with patients with monovascular disease. The factors related to the presence of MAU included the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), systolic blood pressure, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level (odds ratios [ORs] of 0.988, 1.026, and 1.371, respectively). Conclusion The present study showed that the prevalence of MAU among hypertensive patients was 42.8%, even in patients whose blood pressure was relatively well controlled. Additionally, the eGFR, systolic blood pressure, and HbA1c level are risk factors for the development of MAU. These findings suggest that a substantial number of hypertensive patients have MAU and highlight the importance of strictly controlling these factors to improve patient prognosis.
Objective The aim of the present study was to assess changes in blood pressure and metabolism after switching treatment from maximum-dose angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy to a mixture of conventional-dose ARBs and low-dose diuretics. Methods This study was conducted among 43 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with hypertension in whom continuous treatment with high doses of ARBs did not reduce their blood pressure to the target level (a systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or lower and a diastolic blood pressure of 80 mmHg or lower). The antihypertensive and metabolic effects of switching from high-dose ARBs to a combination of losartan (50 mg/day) plus hydrochlorothiazide (12.5 mg/day) were examined. The primary endpoint was a decrease in blood pressure at 24 weeks. Results The combination treatment significantly decreased both systolic (baseline: 147±11; 24 weeks: 133±13 mmHg) and diastolic (baseline: 79±8; 24 weeks: 72±10 mmHg) blood pressure. This treatment was also associated with a significant increase in the HbA1c level (baseline: 7.0±0.8%; 24 weeks: 7.2±0.9%) and a significant decrease in the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (baseline: 280±590; 24 weeks: 110±253 mg/g creatinine). However, the combination treatment had no effect on lipid metabolism or the serum uric acid or potassium levels. Conclusion In patients with diabetes, sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules is enhanced, which leads to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Therefore, the concurrent use of a diuretic that promotes sodium excretion can increase the antihypertensive effects of other drugs. This study demonstrated that switching from high-dose ARB treatment to losartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy results in significant control of blood pressure.
Objective The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics of hospitalized patients suffering from tuberculosis with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), focusing specifically on those treated without anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. Methods We conducted a retrospective review to assess the characteristics of 1,022 hospitalized Japanese patients suffering from tuberculosis with and without RA between 2002 and 2011. Results Compared with the 995 non-RA patients with tuberculosis, the 24 RA patients with tuberculosis treated without anti-TNF therapy were older and predominantly female. They less frequently had a history of smoking, with a higher rate of underlying respiratory diseases, an impaired performance status and side effects. The three RA patients receiving anti-TNF therapy had extrapulmonary tuberculosis; however, the rate of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the other RA patients treated without anti-TNF therapy did not differ from that observed in the non-RA patients. Five patients died during hospitalization. The in-hospital mortality of the RA patients did not differ significantly from that of the non-RA patients. Independent factors contributing to in-hospital mortality did not include RA. Conclusion In this study, the RA patients treated without anti-TNF therapy did not differ from the non-RA patients in terms of the rate of extrapulmonary tuberculosis or bilateral pulmonary lesions, although they did exhibit a higher frequency of side effects of antituberculosis treatment. RA was not found to be an independent factor contributing to in-hospital mortality.
Objective We retrospectively investigated the clinical features of pulmonary aspergillosis associated with interstitial pneumonia. Methods We reviewed the medical records of all patients treated for interstitial pneumonia with or without pulmonary aspergillosis at our institution between April 2006 and August 2012 and evaluated the clinical features as well as risk and prognostic factors for pulmonary aspergillosis associated with interstitial pneumonia. Results Among 539 patients with interstitial pneumonia, 15 who suffered from pulmonary aspergillosis were identified. The median age was 69.2±7.0 years, and fourteen patients were men. The subtypes of pulmonary aspergillosis were chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (n=14) and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (n=1). The forms of interstitial pneumonia included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n=9), rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial pneumonia (n=4) and pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (n=2). The underlying conditions were emphysema (n=9) and a history of oral corticosteroid and/or immunosuppressive use (n=4). Home oxygen therapy (HOT) was administered in 11 patients. Following the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis, all patients were treated with antifungal drugs. Ten patients (66.6%) died. A comparison of the interstitial pneumonia patients with and without pulmonary aspergillosis showed that the presence of emphysema, use of HOT and death were significantly associated with pulmonary aspergillosis. Conclusion Pulmonary aspergillosis is one of the major complications of interstitial pneumonia and its prognosis is poor. Therefore, providing careful monitoring and proper treatment is extremely important.
Objective Laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), but it is expensive and requires overnight hospitalization. Recently, a sheet-shaped breath detection monitor, the SD-101, has been developed, and several reports have so far demonstrated the screening accuracy of this device. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and the uncertainty of this device. Methods A total of 101 suspected OSAHS patients underwent simultaneous examinations with PSG and the SD-101. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) by the SD-101 and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) by PSG. At an RDI cutoff of 14 episodes per hour, the sensitivity and specificity to detect an AHI ≥20 episodes per hour were 90.2% and 90.0%, respectively. To reduce the influence of sleep efficiency, the time in bed (TIB) obtained from PSG, instead of the total seep time (TST), was used to calculate the AHI from the PSG data. There was also a statistically significant relationship between the RDI and AHI for the TIB. Moreover, it was suggested that arousal index and TIB were likely associated with false-negative and/or false-positive results. Conclusion Although the present study demonstrated a close relationship between the RDI and the AHI, use of the SD-101 to examine symptomatic OSAHS patients should be performed with a full understanding of its incapability to detect the sleep state, including arousal reaction and the existence of false respiratory events caused by body movements.
Objective We examined the therapeutic strategies for treating mild gastrointestinal (GI) graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using oral beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) in 15 Japanese patients based on the donor source. The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of oral BDP combined with/without low-dose prednisone (PSL). Methods Oral BDP was administered with 1 mg/kg/d of PSL in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT; n=11), and the dose of PSL was tapered off after 22 days. Oral BDP alone was administered in patients undergoing cord blood stem cell transplantation (CBSCT; n=4). The primary endpoint was the rate of treatment success on day 49, as measured according to the improvement or complete resolution of GI symptoms without additional treatment. The secondary endpoints included treatment-related toxicity according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0, the rate of treatment discontinuation due to toxicity, the rate of relapse of acute GVHD by day 100 and the incidence of bacterial, fungal or viral infection, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia. Results Treatment success was achieved in seven of the 11 (64%) patients undergoing BMT or PBSCT and in all four patients (100%) undergoing CBSCT. Subsequent adverse events included herpes zoster infection, catheter-associated sepsis and CMV enteritis; all affected patients responded well to treatment. Conclusion The use of a risk-stratified treatment strategy with oral BDP depending on the stem cell source is effective in patients with mild GI-GVHD.
Objective Acute cholecystitis (AC) after acute cerebral infarction is rare and has not been fully investigated. Because patients with acute cerebral infarction often cannot complain of abdominal pain due to loss of consciousness, hemiparesis and aphasia, delays in diagnosis may increase the severity of the condition. It is clearly important to identify symptoms, reach a diagnosis and provide treatment as soon as possible. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features of AC after acute cerebral infarction. Methods Among the 1,682 patients with acute cerebral infarction admitted to our hospital between April 2007 and July 2012, AC after acute cerebral infarction was diagnosed in 24 (1.4%). Data regarding age, sex, past history, fasting period, period from admission to the onset of cholecystitis, clinical type, severity of cholecystitis, diffusion-weighted imaging Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at onset and modified Rankin scale at 90 days were investigated. Results The mean age of the 24 patients (15 men, 9 women) was 74.2±11.9 years (range, 45-90 years). The clinical type was atherothrombosis in five patients, lacunar infarction in seven patients, cardiac embolism in 10 patients and dissection in two patients. The past history included atrial fibrillation in 10 (42%) patients, hypertension in 20 (83%) patients and diabetes in 11 (46%) patients. The mean duration of fasting was 10.7 days (range, 1-32 days). The mean interval between the onset of cholecystitis and admission was 8.3 days (range, 0-24 days). The median NIHSS score at onset of cerebral infarction was 10, and 23 (96%) patients were bedridden at the onset of cholecystitis. Conclusion AC after acute cerebral infarction was frequently observed in the patients with severe hemiparesis and those who were fasted. It is important to identify symptoms, accurately diagnose the condition and provide treatment as soon as possible in order to achieve early ambulation and resumption of food intake using a feeding tube.
Objective We performed a longitudinal study to elucidate the correlation between respiratory insufficiency and respiratory biomarkers, including diaphragmatic compound muscle action potential (DCMAP), at the initiation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods The patients were assessed at least every six months. Additional assessments were performed at the start of respiratory therapy when the patients met the criteria for the initiation of NIV. Each assessment consisted of a full neurological examination, a phrenic nerve conduction study, respiratory function tests, and nocturnal pulsed oximetry. Patients We enrolled 43 patients with either definite or probable ALS as defined by the revised El Escorial criteria. Results The patients were divided into two groups according to the timing of the initiation of respiratory therapy. Seventeen patients (group A) met the criteria for NIV initiation when their DCMAP remained normal. Twenty-six patients (group B) met the criteria when their DCMAP decreased below normal limits. Although respiratory function parameters were significantly worse in group B compared with group A at NIV initiation, more than 80% of the patients in both groups developed nocturnal desaturation during sleep. Conclusion DCMAP is not always a reliable indicator for determining the optimal timing for NIV initiation during the progression of respiratory insufficiency in ALS. Physicians should be aware of the risk of respiratory insufficiency during sleep in patients with ALS.
Objective The purpose of this study was to perform clinicopathological evaluations of patients with pure influenza A virus pneumonia. Methods We performed clinicopathological analyses of four cases of pure influenza A virus pneumonia. Patients Among the four cases, three were caused by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Three patients were analyzed during autopsy, and one underwent transbronchial lung biopsy. Results We suggest that the interval between influenza virus A pneumonia onset and our analysis affected the pathological findings. Diffuse alveolar damage was observed during the acute phase. After ten days, organizing pneumonia and marked proliferation of premature type II alveolar epithelium were observed. Clinically, intra-alveolar hemorrhage was observed in two patients. Pathologically, hyaline membrane formation and intra-alveolar hemorrhage were observed in all cases. Conclusion Severe epithelial damage was determined as the main mechanism of respiratory failure caused by influenza A virus pneumonia.
The present report describes a case of a patient with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection who was treated with tenofovir disoproxil (TDF)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and who achieved HBs antigen (Ag)/antibody (Ab) seroconversion. An 18-year-old Japanese man with HIV and HBV co-infection presented to our hospital. His CD4 count was decreased, and TDF-based HARRT was started. At 30 months after initiation of therapy, HBsAg was not detected. At 36 months after initiation of therapy, HBsAb was detected. We conclude that TDF-based therapy is useful for the management of patients with HBV and HIV co-infection.
A 66-year-old man was admitted due to repeated syncope, and the electrocardiogram showed complete atrioventricular block (CAVB). He had moderate aortic valve stenosis (AS) with a severely calcified valve. This case indicates that if calcification spreads into the cardiac conduction system, it may cause CAVB. Although CAVB is not typically considered a main cause of syncope in AS patients, it should nevertheless be considered in the differential diagnosis.
Although dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors have been implicated in the development of acute pancreatitis, the causality of this phenomenon is not well established. We herein report the case of an 85-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain after taking saxagliptin for five months. A high serum lipase level with characteristic computed tomography findings confirmed the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The patient's symptoms rapidly resolved after admission, although they recurred when she resumed treatment with saxagliptin for 18 days after discharge. In the absence of any identifiable causes of pancreatitis and considering the temporal sequence of events, the saxagliptin therapy was highly suspected to be the triggering factor. Although drug-induced pancreatitis is rare, treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors should be included as a potential etiology of acute pancreatitis.
A 64-year-old Japanese man with renal dysfunction caused by autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of right back pain, fever, inflammation, and pleural effusion. Diagnostic investigations for tuberculous pleuritis were all negative. Although no radiographic abnormality suggesting hepatic cyst infection was detected by computed tomography, hepatic cyst drainage demonstrated purulent contents indicative of cyst infection. Conglutination of the cyst by minocycline 100 mg was performed five times in addition to drainage. After drainage, the symptoms of inflammation, right back pain and right pleural effusion subsided. Renal function and anemia, which had been resistant to darbepoetin treatment, also improved after the procedure. These results suggested that the infected hepatic cyst was associated with the patient's symptoms, exacerbation of renal dysfunction and anemia. The pleural effusion was due to the propagation of inflammation from the cyst infection. This is the first report of an infected hepatic cyst in an ADPKD patient presenting with and diagnosed by right pleural effusion.
A 74-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for an evaluation of unidentified pneumonia. She gradually developed a high-grade fever with a growing infiltrative shadow on chest CT and an enlarging bilateral cervical mass. She was diagnosed with a pulmonary Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum) infection with cervical lymphadenitis based on the results of an open biopsy of the cervical lymph node. While the patient's clinical condition resolved almost completely after treatment with multiple antibiotics, neutralizing autoantibodies to interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were identified in her serum. The progression of disseminated M. fortuitum infection in immunocompetent patients may be affected by the presence of autoantibodies to IFN-γ.
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is one of a number of major types of mitochondrial disorders. Most sporadic PEO patients have a heteroplasmic large deletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the mitochondria in skeletal muscles. We herein analyzed mtDNA deletions using sub-cloning and Sanger sequencing of PCR products in a 31-year-old Japanese man with multiple symptoms, including PEO, muscle weakness, hearing loss, leukoencephalopathy and hypogonadism. A large number of multiple deletions was detected, as well as four kinds of deletion breakpoints identified in different locations, including m.3347_12322, m.5818_13964, m.5829_13964 and m.5837_13503.
Demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is quite rare. We herein present the case of a woman patient with a 12-year history of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)-like polyneuropathy who later developed bulbar palsy and respiratory failure. The autopsy findings revealed neuronal loss in the anterior horn and primary motor cortex with degeneration of the corticospinal tracts. Diffuse phosphorylated TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa inclusions were observed in the anterior horn and cerebral cortices, including the temporal lobe. The final diagnosis was ALS with CIDP-like polyneuropathy. Compared with other reports of ALS with CIDP-like polyneuropathy, the present patient was younger and followed a relatively long clinical course, with no upper motor neuron signs.
Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is a young-adult-onset autosomal dominant white matter disease characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction. We herein report the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed spastic hemiplegia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased bilateral T2 signal intensity and bright diffusion-weighted imaging signals with a low apparent diffusion coefficient within the frontoparietal white matter. The lesion gradually expanded for over one year. The patient was initially diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, she did not respond to immunosuppressive therapy. DNA sequencing showed a heterozygous c.2381T>C mutation in colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor. HDLS with a pure motor phenotype is sometimes difficult to differentiate from MS.
We herein present two cases of cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory associated with an accessory middle cerebral artery (AMCA), which is a rare anomalous vessel arising from the anterior cerebral artery that coexists with the main trunk of the MCA. Cerebral infarction occurred in both patients: due to occlusion of the MCA main trunk in one patient and occlusion of the AMCA in the other patient. These cases suggest the importance of recognizing an AMCA when interpreting neuroradiological findings in patients with MCA ischemic stroke, especially in the hyperacute phase.
A 50-year-old man with a history of long-term corticosteroid treatment following adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus was admitted for an examination of an abnormal thoracic shadow. Cryptococcal serum antigens were positive, and the histopathology of a lung biopsy showed encapsulated yeast resembling Cryptococcus neoformans. On admission, the serum β-D-glucan level was approximately twice the cutoff value, several nodules were observed on both legs and magnetic resonance imaging revealed subcutaneous abscesses. Candida albicans was identified from needle aspirates, and the patient was successfully treated with fluconazole and flucytosine. We herein report the first case of concurrent C. albicans skin abscesses and pulmonary cryptococcosis.
We herein report the case of a 68-year-old man with a history of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myelocytic leukemia in whom graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in the gastrointestinal tract and liver five months after transplantation. In that same period, chest computed tomography showed infiltration in both upper lungs. We performed bronchoscopy to clarify the GVHD and pulmonary infection. Nocardia nova was identified in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and we diagnosed the patient as having pulmonary nocardiosis. Because the differential diagnosis is important for the medical management of GVHD and pulmonary infection, performing bronchoscopy is essential for making an appropriate and rapid diagnosis.