Objective In general, surface ulceration in gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is considered a malignant feature; however, the mechanism underlying its formation has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, we analyzed the factors involved in ulceration using resected specimens of gastric GIST.
Methods A total of 48 samples were retrospectively analyzed. We examined the association of surface ulceration of gastric GIST with the MIB-1 labeling index, mitotic number, tumor size, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) findings and growth pattern on computed tomography (CT).
Results The proportion of men was significantly higher in the ulceration group than in the non-ulceration group (p=0.04146), whereas age was not significantly different between the groups. Tumor was significantly larger in the ulceration group than in the non-ulceration group (p=0.0048). There was no correlation between tumor size and ulcer number. The MIB-1 index was not related to ulceration, nor were EUS findings. The number of mitotic cells tended to be higher in the ulceration group than in the non-ulceration group (p=0.05988). Intraluminal growth pattern was strongly associated with ulceration (p=0.00019). After a multivariate analysis, the growth pattern was the only factor associated with ulceration of gastric GIST.
Conclusion Although formation of surface ulceration in gastric GIST was partially associated with the degree of malignancy, the growth pattern was the most important factor associated with ulceration in gastric GIST.
Objective This study retrospectively compared the outcomes of emergently admitted patients with aortic stenosis (AS) with or without urgent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
Methods Patients hospitalized between February 2015 and December 2019 for symptomatic AS were retrospectively analyzed by comparing the received conservative management [continued medical therapy with or without elective surgical transcatheter replacement (SAVR) or TAVR scheduled after the index hospitalization] and urgent TAVR (TAVR during the index hospitalization).
Results The cohort comprised 114 patients with symptomatic AS who required emergency admission. Urgent TAVR was performed for 37 patients, while conservative management was provided for 77 patients, including 1 who received urgent SAVR. Urgent TAVR was more likely to be performed in patients with a history of hospitalization for heart failure, high New York Heart Association class scores, a lower clinical frailty scale at admission, and a high aortic valve peak velocity (p=0.01, p<0.001, p<0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analyses with log-rank test revealed favorable outcomes of urgent TAVR in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events within 60 days of admission (p<0.01, p<0.01, respectively).
Conclusion Urgent TAVR had better short-term outcomes in patients with symptomatic AS who required emergency hospital admission than conservative management. When considering urgent TAVR, patients with typical heart failure symptoms due to AS with a history of heart failure hospitalization and relatively little frailty can be selected.
Objective To evaluate the effects of one-year aerobic interval training on endothelial dysfunction in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Methods Seventy-four patients with atrial fibrillation (53 men, 21 women; mean age 63±6 years old) were randomized into a 1-year continuous aerobic interval training (CT), 6-month detraining after 6 months of aerobic interval training (DT), or medical treatment only (MT) group. Aerobic interval training was performed 3 times a week for 1 year or 6 months, with an exercise intensity of 85-95% of the peak heart rate. The primary outcome was a change in biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction from baseline at six months or at the one-year follow-up.
Results Six-month aerobic interval training reduced von Willebrand factor (CT: 103.7±30.7 IU/dL and DT: 106±31.2 IU/dL vs. MT: 145±47.7 IU/dL, p=0.044). Improvements were maintained with continuous aerobic interval training; however, the values increased again to the baseline levels upon detraining (CT: 84.3±39.1 IU/dL vs. DT: 122.2±27.5 IU/dL and MT: 135.9±50.4 IU/dL, p=0.002). Interleukin 1 beta levels decreased after 6 months of aerobic interval training (CT: 0.59±0.1 pg/mL and DT: 0.63±0.09 pg/mL vs. MT: 0.82±0.28 pg/mL, p=0.031), and the improvement was maintained with continuous aerobic interval training and even after detraining (CT: 0.58±0.08 pg/mL and DT: 0.62±0.09 pg/mL vs. MT: 0.86±0.28 pg/mL, p=0.015).
Conclusion One-year aerobic interval training improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with atrial fibrillation and is primarily associated with the reduction in circulating thrombogenic and pro-inflammatory factors. A definitive way to sustain these improvements is the long-term continuation of aerobic training.
Objective Although blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteremia are recommended for nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP), the incidence of true bacteremia and the relationship between true bacteremia and the outcome remain unclear. Physicians can therefore sometimes be confused regarding whether or not blood cultures should be obtained for NHCAP patients. This study assessed the incidence of true bacteremia and the relationship between true bacteremia and the outcome of NHCAP in a Japanese hospital setting.
Methods We retrospectively analyzed NHCAP patients hospitalized between April 2016 and March 2021. The primary outcome was the incidence of true bacteremia in blood cultures. The incidence of true bacteremia was also examined according to quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and A-DROP scores. In addition, we compared the incidence of true bacteremia between survivors and non-survivors.
Results In total, 205 patients were included in this study. Blood cultures were obtained from 150 of the 205 patients (73.2%). Positive blood cultures were detected in 26 patients (17.3%), of which only 8 cases (5.3%; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-10.2%) were considered true bacteremia. Trend analyses for the incidence of true bacteremia according to qSOFA and A-DROP scores did not show any statistically significant results (p=0.49 for qSOFA; p=0.14 for A-DROP). The proportion of true bacteremia cases did not differ significantly between survivors and non-survivors.
Conclusions The incidence of true bacteremia among NHCAP patients was very low. A strategy for determining indications for obtaining blood cultures from NHCAP patients needs to be established.
Objective This study aimed to clarify the vaccination coverage of vaccine-preventable diseases and the factors and reasons for non-vaccination among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Methods This single-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 September to 30 November 2020 in a 715-bed regional tertiary-care teaching hospital in Japan. A questionnaire survey was undertaken to investigate the vaccination status of patients with SLE, and the factors and reasons for not receiving the influenza vaccine, 23-valent-pneumococcal-polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), varicella vaccine live (VVL), and recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV).
Results The vaccination coverage for the influenza vaccine, PPSV23, PCV13, VVL, and RZV was 61%, 22%, 19%, 3.4%, and 0%, respectively, among 261 patients. The most common reason for vaccine hesitancy was 'efficacy concerns about vaccines' for the influenza vaccine and 'cost' for PPSV23 and PCV13. The factors significantly associated with non-vaccination were prescription of high-dose glucocorticoids and no history of visits to other internal medicine clinics for the influenza vaccine; a younger age and prescription of high-dose glucocorticoids for PPSV23; and a younger age, no medication with hydroxychloroquine, no history of hospitalisation in internal medicine, and extensive clinical experience of the doctor for PCV13.
Conclusion These findings, which demonstrated that the factors and reasons for non-vaccination varied by vaccine type, suggest that individualised strategies should be used to promote vaccination in this population.
Although concurrent occurrence of spondyloarthritis (SpA) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is sometimes seen, the profiles of cytokines have been poorly understood in UC-associated SpA. We herein report a case of UC-associated SpA successfully treated with infliximab (IFX). Profiles of cytokines in the serum and colonic mucosa were characterized by an enhanced expression of IL-6 but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Successful induction of remission by IFX was associated with the downregulation of IL-6 expression but no significant alteration in TNF-α expression. These findings suggest that some cases of UC-associated SpA might be driven by IL-6, and IFX might be effective in cases lacking enhanced TNF-α responses.
A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the further examination of main pancreatic duct interruption. Imaging findings showed a 25-mm-diameter mass lesion located in the pancreatic head. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) was performed on the mass. Cytology suggested adenocarcinoma, but the histological diagnosis was not confirmed. We made a comprehensive diagnosis of resectable pancreatic cancer. The mass shrank after preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, and the patient underwent surgery. The final pathological diagnosis was type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Two years after surgery, AIP had not recurred in the remaining pancreas.
A patient with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C virus who had been treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (RBV) was treated with glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) for 12 weeks. A sustained virological response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12) was achieved, but relapse occurred approximately 31 weeks after the end of treatment. The patient had a history of allergy to RBV and was treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), achieving SVR12 and remaining hepatitis C virus-negative until 24 weeks after the completion of treatment. LDV/SOF can thus be a secondary treatment for GLE/PIB.
Vasospastic angina (VSA) can be worsened by oral nonselective beta-blockers. Ophthalmic carteolol eye drops are nonselective beta-blockers and effective against glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Systemic effects of ophthalmic beta-blockers on VSA have not yet been reported. We herein report a case of VSA that developed after a patient started carteolol eye drops for ocular hypertension. Even though benidipine, a calcium channel blocker, was started, a VSA attack with incessant non-sustained ventricular tachycardia occurred. Once the carteolol eyedrops were discontinued, the VSA resolved. This case demonstrates that carteolol eye drops can induce life-threatening VSA.
Speech-induced atrial tachycardia (AT) with presyncope is extremely rare. A 52-year-old woman employed at a supermarket reported recurrent presyncope while speaking out loud at her job. Holter electrocardiography revealed AT while swallowing without presyncope. The patient's blood pressure decreased during AT, and she experienced presyncope while saying "IRASSHAIMASE" loudly during a tilt table test. Accordingly, bisoprolol 1.25 mg was prescribed, and the patient did not experience episodes of presyncope with recurrence of AT for 2 years. This case suggests that provocation of arrhythmia in the tilting position may be useful for demonstrating a relationship between arrhythmia and presyncope and/or syncope.
Mutations in the surfactant protein C gene (SFTPC) are responsible for hereditary interstitial lung disease (ILD), which is a rare disease. We herein report a patient with a clinical history of endogenous lipoid pneumonia in infancy who developed diffuse progressive pulmonary fibrosis in adulthood associated with SFTPC mutations. A surgical lung biopsy and genetic sequencing revealed fibrotic interstitial pneumonia and two SFTPC mutations (c.215G>A and c.578C>A). Based on these findings, we diagnosed the series of lung diseases as sporadic ILD caused by SFTPC mutations. Physicians should suggest genetic sequencing in patients with early-onset ILD.
A 91-year-old woman was brought to our hospital with altered consciousness. Blood tests showed an increased ammonia level of 468 μg/dL and a normal liver function. Chest computed tomography showed massive right pleural effusion with loculation. We immediately performed chest drainage using two drainage tubes. The pleural effusate pH was 8.5. We diagnosed her with right empyema leading to hyperammonemia and initiated ampicillin/sulbactam therapy. However, she developed progressive renal failure and died on the third day. Empyema caused by urease-producing bacteria can lead to hyperammonemia. This is the first report of hyperammonemia due to empyema in the English literature.
Primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma (PEL-LL) is a rare lymphoma, localized in the body cavity without detectable tumor masses. Tuberculous pleural effusion is a form of extra pulmonary tuberculous. We herein report three cases of PEL-LL in patients with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Despite the presentation with lymphocyte predominance and high levels of adenosine deaminase, a notable characteristic of tuberculous pleural effusion, the patients were ultimately diagnosed with PEL-LL. Pleural fluid laboratory tests yield similar results for PEL-LL and tuberculous pleural effusion; therefore, cytological and immunophenotyping examinations are useful for their differential diagnosis and the determination of treatment.
We herein report a case of intracranial myeloid sarcoma mimicking hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. A 71-year-old man with a history of acute myeloid leukemia was admitted with acute-onset dysarthria. A hematoma-like lesion was found on computed tomography in the left putamen. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid cytology confirmed the diagnosis of intracranial myeloid sarcoma. The patient showed a favorable response to chemotherapy, and follow-up MRI revealed shrinkage of the tumor. Since the computed tomography findings resemble those of intracerebral hemorrhage, it is important to suspect intracranial neoplasm, particularly in cases with a history of hematologic diseases.
An 84-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN). We administered combination therapy using venetoclax and azacytidine. We observed neutropenia (Grade 4), thrombocytopenia (Grade 2), and stomatitis (Grade 3). After six cycles of treatment, the BPDCN abnormal cells in the bone marrow specimen almost disappeared, and atypical cells were not detected in a skin biopsy. We propose venetoclax combined with azacytidine as a useful treatment approach in elderly patients, although clinicians should be mindful that therapeutic modifications may be essential to minimize and/or avoid adverse events.
Lymphoproliferative disorders and Epstein-Barr virus reactivation (EBV-LPDs) have various forms of onset, ranging from infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome (IM-like) to lymphoma, although whether or not IM-like progresses to lymphoma remains unclear. A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with aplastic anemia (AA). Polyclonal atypical B-lymphocytes were observed in the peripheral blood, and IM-like was diagnosed. Atypical lymphocytes disappeared, but a gastrointestinal examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Rituximab was initiated but later discontinued because of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Pancytopenia due to AA exacerbation recurred. The patient ultimately died of multiple organ failure due to bacterial infection.
Paralytic ileus as tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is extremely rare. We herein report a 44-year-old man with pulmonary and renal tuberculosis who developed paralytic ileus 14 days after starting antituberculosis therapy (ATT) despite an initial favorable response to ATT. Paralytic ileus was successfully managed with conservative care. He initially required hemodialysis because of obstructive uropathy due to renal tuberculosis, but he was able to withdraw from dialysis after placement of ureteral stents. TB-IRIS can affect organs other than the original sites of tuberculosis, and the combined use of steroids may be effective for its prevention and treatment.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a life-threatening disease that can develop weeks after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). MIS-A symptoms include multiorgan involvement, especially gastrointestinal tract and heart involvement, and Kawasaki disease-like symptoms. We herein report a 44-year-old Japanese man with MIS-A who had contracted COVID-19 five weeks ago and went into shock after acute gastroenteritis, acute kidney injury, and Kawasaki disease-like symptoms. Methylprednisone pulse and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in recovery of shock and his renal function, but diffuse ST-segment elevation on electrocardiography and pericardial effusion with a fever emerged after therapy. Additional granulocyte-monocyte adsorptive apheresis successfully ameliorated the cardiac involvement.
A 21-year-old man on hemodialysis was hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. After admission, he had a persistent high fever and developed erythema induratum on his extremities. Laboratory tests conducted 25 days after onset showed markedly increased procalcitonin (PCT) levels (>100 ng/mL). The patient developed impaired consciousness and hypotensive shock and required endotracheal intubation. Based on the presence of erythema induratum and multiorgan dysfunction, he was diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS). The MIS resolved after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone. This report illustrates that MIS can occur in adults and may be accompanied by high PCT levels.