Objective To demonstrate the correlation of six healthy habits with plasma glucose. Methods Our mnemonic or motto for promoting healthy habits is “none of one, less of two, more of three”. The ‘one’ behavior is smoking. The two things are intake of food and alcohol. The three things are exercise, rest and enjoyable activities. Subjects A questionnaire recording compliance with this motto was completed by 8,113 subjects undergoing medical health check-ups. Subjects under medication were excluded. Fasting plasma glucose was measured. Results Fasting plasma glucose decreased significantly in relation to the number of healthy habits practiced (5.57 mmol/l for one, 5.51 for two, 5.49 for three, 5.41 for four, 5.38 for five, and 5.31 for six). Conclusion Practicing these six healthy habits contributes to the prevention of diabetes mellitus.
Objective To clarify whether polymorphisms G1704T and G82S of the RAGE gene were related to diabetic retinopathy, we performed a case-control study in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Patients and Methods Two hundred and sixty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes were examined for polymorphisms G1704T and G82S of the RAGE gene. The genotypes of G1704T and G82S of the RAGE gene were determined with a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was diagnosed in a masked manner by independent ophthalmologists using fundus photographs and was classified as non-diabetic retinopathy (NDR), non-proliferative retinopathy (NPDR), and proliferative retinopathy (PDR). Results The T allele frequency of G1704T and S allele frequency of G82S in patients with DR did not significantly differ from those without retinopathy. There were no differences among the genotypes of G1704T and G82S of the RAGE gene regarding age, duration of diabetes, BMI, HbA1c, blood pressure, and lipids levels. Conclusion These data suggest that polymorphisms G1704T and G82S of the RAGE gene are not related to DR in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.
Objective To assess changes in response to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) concerning excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), depressive state, and quality of life (QOL). Patients and Methods We assessed for EDS using the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), for mood using The Zung self-depression scale (SDS), and for QOL using Short-Form 36 (SF-36) in 132 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and control subjects. Patients had severe OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index, 59.4±23.8/h) and were more hypersomnolent and depressed, and had poorer QOL than 38 age- and gender-matched controls. Results Before treatment most QOL domains in the SF-36 were significantly associated with patients’ SDS scores. With nasal CPAP, ESS and SDS scores were respectively decreased from 9.7±4.5 to 4.0±2.4 (p<0.0001) and from 49.2±10.4 to 45.1±9.6 (p<0.0005). Total SF-36 score and scores for seven of eight domains were increased significantly with treatment. Thus, nasal CPAP lessens EDS and depression, and improves QOL, in patients with severe OSAS. Further, magnitudes of changes in total SF-36 scores and in five of eight domains correlated significantly with magnitude of change in SDS score upon nasal CPAP treatment. No relationship was evident between treatment-associated score changes in SF-36 domains and ESS score change. Conclusion Although patients with severe OSAS have poorer QOL than control subjects, nasal CPAP appears to improve QOL by alleviating depression.
Objective Immunoglobulin-related free light chains (FLCs) in serum have recently become quantitatively detectable using the nephelometric assay in plasma cell disorders, including multiple myeloma and AL amyloidosis. To investigate whether FLCs are useful as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in Japanese patients with primary systemic AL amyloidosis, we determined these values in serum before and after chemotherapy. Patients and Methods The serum FLC analysis was carried out in 25 patients with primary systemic AL amyloidosis (mean age, 60.1±8.4 years). All of the patients were shown to have either ALê- or ALë-immunoreactive amyloid deposits on biopsied tissues. Thirteen patients were treated with VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone) alone (n=6) or VAD and subsequent high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell support (n=7), and serum FLCs were serially determined before and after the chemotherapy. Results Before chemotherapy the amyloidogenic FLC was elevated in serum with or without abnormal ê/ë ratios in 24 patients, including 5 with undetectable M-protein in both serum and urine on immunofixation. After chemotherapy the amyloidogenic FLC in serum was significantly decreased irrespective of high-dose melphalan (p<0.05), and all the patients with normalized ê/ë ratios showed a good prognosis. Conclusions With respect to sensitivity and quantification serum FLCs will be a key marker for diagnosis and therapeutic effects in primary systemic AL amyloidosis. The prognosis of patients with this disease may be improved if the ê/ë ratio in serum can be normalized by intensive chemotherapy.
Objective Purpose was to assess the stroke mechanism in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO). Methods We reviewed the medical records of 111 stroke patients with PFO and sinus rhythm (PFO-S group), 25 with PFO and atrial fibrillation (AF) (PFO-AF group) and 67 with AF but not PFO (AF group), who had received contrast transesophageal echocardiography. The clinical and neuroradiological findings were then compared among the three groups. Deep vein thrombosis was investigated in 93 patients with PFO. We determined the number of patients with definite paradoxical embolism who met three criteria: deep vein thrombosis, neuroradiological features indicating embolic stroke, and the absence of other sources of emboli. We also evaluated those with probable paradoxical embolism who met two of the three criteria. Results The PFO-S group more frequently exhibited hypercholesterolemia (p<0.0001) and lesions limited to the posterior circulation (p<0.0004), and less frequently exhibited large or cortical lesions in the anterior circulation (p=0.0008, p<0.0001, respectively), than the PFO-AF and AF groups. In the PFO-S and PFO-AF groups, other sources of emboli such as a cardiac source of emboli, cerebral artery stenosis ≥50%, or complicated atheroma in the aortic arch were identified in 72 cases (52.9%). In the 93 patients with examination for deep vein thrombosis, the definite and probable criteria of paradoxical embolism were fulfilled only in three (3.2%) and 33 cases (35.5%), respectively. Conclusion In stroke patients with PFO, not only paradoxical brain embolism through the PFO but also other causes of stroke may contribute to the development of stroke.
We report a 66-year-old male patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with Wilson’s disease. The patient presented with unresolving abnormal liver function test, decreased serum ceruloplasmin levels and increased 24-hour urine copper excretion. Liver biopsy specimen revealed the presence of increased levels of copper and features suggestive of Wilson’s disease. Abdominal imaging showed the existence of a small HCC. Three years after chemoembolization and microwave coagulation therapy for HCC, he died of hepatic failure, which apparently resulted from chemoembolization. Patients with Wilson’s disease should be screened for HCC. We should elude therapies such as chemoembolization in these patients.
This report describes a case of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presenting as a polypoid mass in the lower esophagus. The patient was a 63-year-old man with HCC. An endoscopic examination revealed a pedunculated polypoid mass, about 3 cm in diameter, at the lower part of the esophagus. The biopsy specimen obtained from the tumor revealed that the mass consisted of a pseudoglandular arrangement of tumor cells, and the tumor was diagnosed as metastatic HCC. There were no symptoms due to esophageal tumor. He died of progressive hepatic failure. Cases of premortem-diagnosed esophageal metastasis from HCC are extremely rare.
A 76-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for unresponsiveness and hypotension. She had developed constipation that had led to ileus and had received 34 g of magnesium citrate (Magcolol P®) orally the day before. She was lethargic, her blood pressure was less than 50 mmHg, and electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed sinus arrest with junctional escape rhythm. Her serum concentration of magnesium (Mg) was markedly elevated (16.6 mg/dl =13.7 mEq/l). Emergency colonoscopy revealed ischemic colitis. As her condition ameliorated, her renal function returned to normal. Hence, the present case suggests that severe hypermagnesemia can occur in the absence of pre-existing renal dysfunction in elderly patients with gastrointestinal diseases.
A 71-year-old woman was admitted for paralysis on the left side of her body. She developed dyspnea and hypoxemia after admission. Although pulmonary embolism was suspected, hypoxemia and dyspnea occurred repeatedly in spite of anticoagulation therapy. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale (PFO), an atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), and a right-to-left shunt that appeared in an upright position. She was diagnosed with platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. Moreover, cardiac catheterization showed congenital anomalies, such as unroofed coronary sinus, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return and persistent left superior vena cava. Simple surgical closure of the ASA and PFO improved all of her symptoms.
A 66-year-old woman with malignant lymphoma became neutropenic during chemotherapy and developed cryptococcemia. After amphotericin B had been commenced, she developed significant hypokalemia and polyuria, though her renal function remained stable. The laboratory findings showed no evidence of renal tubular acidosis. With vigorous water and potassium replacement, amphotericin B had been continued until the cumulative dose reached 2.5 g. After the cessation of amphotericin B, the hypokalemia and polyuria resolved promptly. Based on theses findings, she was diagnosed as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with hypokalemia and without renal tubular acidosis due to amphotericin B. This complication is usually reversible, and vigorous water and potassium replacement may allow completion of treatment by amphotericin B, though careful monitoring of body water balance and renal function is of importance.
We report a peculiar case of multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) occurring in a 43-year-old man with tuberous sclerosis. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated multiple micronodules, measuring up to 5 mm in size, present bilaterally in the lung fields, with no cystic change. Histologically, a proliferation of type II pneumocytes without the typical nulclear atypia lined the thickened alveolar septa in an adenomatoid pattern. Proliferation of immature smooth muscle cells suggestive of LAM was not observed. The characteristic findings of the positive immunohistochemical stains for cytokeratin and surfactant apoprotein A and B, and negative stains for HMB-45, alpha-1 smooth muscle actin, desmin, p53 and carcinoembryonic antigen confirmed the presence of alveolar lining cells in each MMPH lesion. Since the MMPH was observed in a male and did not appear to possess malignant potential, the MMPH appears to be a hamartomatous proliferation occurring in a male with tuberous sclerosis that is separate from lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) which is related to estrogen and progesterone receptors.
The first patient, a 68-year-old woman, presented neutropenic fever and hemorrhagic diarrhea on the sixth day of a combination chemotherapy of carboplatin and paclitaxel. The second patient, a 30-year-old man, presented neutropenia and diarrhea on the tenth day of the second cycle of a combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and vinorelbine. In both patients, abdominal computed tomography scan showed thickening of the colon wall and pericolic edema, and the ultrasonography revealed echogenic thickening of the colon walls. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of neutropenic enterocolitis. After the treatments, we changed the anticancer drug regimen; and successfully achieved partial responses.
Alkylating agents are often used to treat patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, it is not common for high-dose cyclophosphamide (CPM) therapy to be used as a treatment for MM. Herein, we report a case of refractory MM associated with hypercalcemia. We decided to give her high-dose CPM. After this treatment, the serum calcium level decreased and the tumor mass in the iliac bone was reduced. This therapy is potentially useful for patients with refractory MM.
A 56-year-old man was admitted for treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). He had undergone a partial small bowel and colon resection and had ileostomy due to bowel perforation induced by chemotherapy. After the operation, his disease status was in partial remission (PR), and reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation (RIST) was therefore performed for further improvement of disease status. The conditioning regimen consisted of fludarabine and busulfan. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was performed using cyclosporin and short-term methotrexate. The occurrence of serious infection during the period of neutropenia was prevented by the administration of amphotericin B, fluconazole and acyclovir. This case report provides important information on the appropriate strategy for treating patients who have ileostomy.
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is effective in approximately 90% of the cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with a low incidence of adverse effects. We report a patient with APL who developed skin ulcers of the scrotum concomitant with high fever during treatment that included ATRA. Severe fever was promptly alleviated with discontinuation of ATRA, while the ulcers improved gradually over 3 months. As the clinical features are similar to those of Sweet’s syndrome, we should be aware of the possibility that this rare adverse effect may occur in the treatment with ATRA.
A patient with primary systemic AL amyloidosis achieved partial hematological response after 2 courses of VAD (vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone) and subsequent high-dose melphalan followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation despite involvement of multiple organs, including the heart. In this patient natriuretic peptides and free light chains in serum were useful as markers of cardiac involvement and therapeutic effects, respectively. When amyloidosis-related dysfunction is seen in multiple organs, this intensive chemotherapy might be a possible therapeutic option, although several modifications in the regimen and careful management are necessary.
Here we report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with myelofibrosis associated with Bowen’s disease. A female patient had undergone an operation and chemotherapy for ovarian cancer when she was 65 years old, and she developed MDS at the age of 70 years old. PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a Bowen’s disease lesion, and normal skin showed an abnormal peak in TP53 exon5. Direct sequencing revealed that they all had missense mutation in codon 175 (G to A) of arginine switched to histidine, suggesting a germline mutation of TP53. It was speculated that p53 function was lost by TP53 germline mutation with the loss of a wild type allele induced by the chemotherapy against ovarian cancer, leading to the development of MDS. No therapeutic effects of low dose melphalan or cyclosporine A on MDS were observed, however one month of 30 mg/day prednisolone administration induced a hematological response.
Acetaminophen is a widely used antipyretic drug. We describe a 64-year-old Japanese woman who developed typical Churg-Strauss syndrome after frequent use of acetaminophen. Following the ingestion of acetaminophen, she exhibited various allergic reactions such as asthmatic attacks, pyrexia and petechiae on legs. In the lymphocyte transformation test, a positive reaction to acetaminophen was detected. A muscle biopsy revealed massive extravascular eosinophil infiltration and a necrotizing vasculitis. Hypersensitivity to acetaminophen may be implicated in the development of Churg-Strauss syndrome in this case.
Clostridium perfringens (C.P) gas gangrene is one of the most fulminant infectious diseases. We encountered fulminant massive gas gangrene in a 56- year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The patient died 14 hours after diagnosis of gas gangrene (54 hours after admission). Dramatic changes in abdominal CT imaging revealed development of a massive volume of gas in the intra-portal vein, retroperitoneum and abdominal subcutaneous tissue within 24 hours. We also proved C.P infection by immunohistological staining, leading to a diagnosis of C.P gas gangrene.