Background and Aim Iron may play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C. We conducted this randomized, controlled trial comparing phlebotomy with dietary iron reduction. Methods Forty patients with chronic hepatitis C showing serum ferritin levels of over 150 ng/ml were randomized to either group A (low-iron diet for six months) or group B (phlebotomy biweekly). Phlebotomy was continued until serum ferritin had reached 20 ng/ml or less. Results At enrollment the clinical characteristics of patients in the two groups were similar. Serum ALT levels were significantly reduced in both groups, but the percent change in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was larger in group B (median, -47.1 [range, -69.1 to -16.7] %) than in group A (-24.2 [-72.6 to 15.9] %, p<0.001). In group A subjects, no correlation was detected between percent change in ALT and clinical parameters. In group B subjects, the baseline ALT activity was significantly correlated with percent change in ALT (p<0.05), but iron-related parameters were not correlated. Conclusion The efficacy of phlebotomy is superior to that of dietary iron reduction in chronic hepatitis C. Serum levels of transaminase activities were a better indicator for phlebotomy than conventional indices of iron overload.
Background Metabolic syndrome is a characterized by a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors, including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome differ among ethnic groups, due in part to differences in eating habits and body build. Little is known about the relationship between metabolic syndrome and ischemic stroke in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and first-time ischemic strokes. Subjects & Methods Study subjects were 1,493 Japanese adults aged 55 years-old or older with no diabetes mellitus, no history of stroke and no neurological abnormalities, who participated in a voluntary neurological health screening at the Institute of Shimane Health Science, Japan (767 men, 62.0 ± 5.9 years old at entry and 726 women, 61.8 ± 5.1 years old at entry). All subjects were given an annual clinical stroke questionnaire. Clinical details of patients who reported strokes were confirmed with the attending physicians. Each subject was evaluated for an average of 6.4 ± 3.8 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified criteria for Japanese population published in April 2005. Results Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 11.0% of men and 1.1% of women. Adjusting for age and smoking, female subjects with metabolic syndrome had a 23.1-fold increased risk of suffering ischemic strokes [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.7-196], whereas metabolic syndrome did not increase the risk of ischemic stroke in men. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome is more likely to influence a risk for ischemic stroke in women than in men.
A primary cardiac malignant tumor is very rare; its prevalence is only 0.002-0.28%. Among most malignant tumors, angiosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and mesothelioma occupy the majority. A cardiac osteosarcoma is extremely rare: to our knowledge, only 36 cases have been reported worldwide. We present a 22-year-old case featuring severe congestive heart failure. Hemodynamically the tumor led to significant obstruction of the mitral valve. The patient underwent an emergency resection operation, but multiple metastases occurred. Though the characteristics still remain unclear because of the low prevalence, it is very important that these tumors be distinguished from benign tumors because of early resection operation.
A 50-year-old man was admitted to determine the pathogenesis of hyponatremia. He had a poor appetite and was easily fatigued. Physical findings showed that he was conscious and alert. He had neither dry skin or tongue, nor pretibial edema. Laboratory data revealed that the serum sodium level was 110 mmol/l; plasma osmolality, 238 mmol/kg; and urinary osmolality, 417 mmol/kg. Plasma arginine vasopressin was 0.5 pg/ml despite plasma osmolality of 242 mmol/kg. An acute water load showed impaired water excretion, as percent excretion of water load was 30% and minimal urinary osmolality was 642 mmol/kg. Serum prolactin was 254 ng/ml, and anterior pituitary hormones of ACTH, TSH and GH were in the normal ranges. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a pituitary tumor with a size of 20×22×21 mm and it pushed a pituitary stalk upward. Immunohistochemistry revealed prolactinoma. After the adenomectomy, serum sodium level has been kept normal with free access to water intake. The present study indicates that syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is manifested in association with pituitary macroadenoma of prolactinoma.
We report a 35-year-old Japanese woman with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed by percutaneous renal biopsy. The patient was referred to our institution for further examination of fever of unknown origin. She had renal dysfunction with a creatinine clearance of 44.1 mL/min, and daily urinary excretion of 0.22 g of protein and 21.5 mg of beta 2 microglobulin. Computed tomography showed markedly enlarged kidneys bilaterally. Percutaneous renal biopsy showed that an island-like atypical lymphoid cell accumulation was encircled with the peritubular capillary walls in many areas of the tubulo-interstitium, resulting in marked destruction of tubular structure. However, almost all the glomeruli were intact. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma. Shortly after diagnosis, she was treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunomycin, oncovin, and prednisolone, and her renal function and size improved. Renal involvement by lymphoma has been classified into two categories: intraglomerular intravascular lymphoma and tubulointerstitial diffuse invasion type that is distinct from intravascular lymphoma. For the latter cases with renal dysfunction and marked bilateral nephromegaly but without proteinuria, intravascular lymphoma within intra-peritublar capillaries should be considered as a possible diagnosis.
A 72-year-old man with cough and sputum showed esophageal wall thickening and pneumonia in chest computed tomography (CT) scan. Following endoscopy, we diagnosed reflux esophagitis and subscribed proton pump inhibitor. The esophageal lesion, however, was intractable. We diagnosed microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) because of vasculitis symptoms, cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (cANCA) in blood and no granulomatous change in the esophagus. We adopted pulse therapy of cyclophosphamide and oral prednisolone; the symptoms and esophageal lesion were markedly improved. We concluded that the esophageal lesion was an aspect of MPA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of esophageal involvement in MPA.
We encountered a 59-year-old man with advanced lung cancer with multiple swollen lymph nodes. At autopsy the lung cancer was revealed as giant cell carcinoma. Microscopic examination showed no cancer cells, but there was polyclonal proliferation of plasma cells in the lymph nodes and in the bone marrow. In the kidneys, proliferation of mesangial matrices and mesangial cells was found. This presentation resembled multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), in which interleukin-6 (IL-6) has a great role. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for IL-6 in cancer cells. This is the first reported case of an IL-6-producing giant cell carcinoma of the lung with MCD-like presentation.
We describe a 27-year-old man with hypereosinophilc syndrome (HES) presenting acute abdomen due to acute thrombosis of the mesenteric artery, who had a past history of eosinophilic pneumonia followed by multiple arterial thromboses of the extremities. At the recurrence of eosinophilia, he was treated with high-dose corticosteroids. Immediately after the reduction of peripheral blood eosinophils, he suddenly developed perforation of the intestine due to acute thromboses of mesenteric arteries despite sustained anticoagulation therapy. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene was negative. Histopathology showed thrombi and eosinophilic inflammation of arteries. It is important to recognize that HES could be a cause of acute abdomen.
Paradoxical cerebral embolism (PCE) is defined to be a pathological condition in which emboli originating from the venous system reach the cerebral arterial circulation via the right-to-left (R-L) shunt. In patients with PCE, emboli originating from the venous system most commonly pass through the patent foramen ovale during Valsalva-provoking activities which increase the right atrial pressure above the left atrial pressure. The size of cerebral infarction caused by PCE is generally small, since the size of emboli which can pass through the R-L shunt is small. Here, we report a case of PCE which occluded the internal carotid artery (ICA).