Objective Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody-based regimens are effective in Behçet's disease (BD) with intestinal lesions. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of medium- to long-term anti-TNF-α antibody-based maintenance therapy of BD intestinal and non-intestinal lesions.
Methods In this retrospective study, the response to the treatment was assessed endoscopically and clinically. Treatment responders were transferred to maintenance therapy. We evaluated the sustain rate of maintenance therapy, reductions in the dose of prednisolone (PSL), and the presence of non-intestinal BD involvement before and after the start of anti-TNF-α antibody-based the maintenance therapy.
Patients We assessed 20 BD patients with intestinal lesions who underwent anti-TNF-α antibody-based therapy.
Results Treatment was discontinued in 3 patients (18%). Loss of response was noted in 1 (5.9%) patient. Maintenance therapy was continued in 13 (76%) patients. The cumulative sustain rates to maintenance therapy after 2, 4, and 6 years were 94%, 87%, and 72%, respectively. In the 13 patients with remission of intestinal lesions, the mean PSL dose decreased from 13.4±2.16 mg/day before treatment to 0.92±0.47 after treatment (p<0.0001). PSL was discontinued in 9 (69%) patients. Five of the 13 (38%) patients developed clinical features of non-intestinal BD during the remission-maintenance treatment.
Conclusion Our results demonstrated the efficacy of medium- to long-term anti-TNF-α antibody-based maintenance treatment against BD intestinal lesions. Nevertheless, some cases with well-controlled intestinal lesions developed active non-intestinal BD symptoms. The results highlight the importance of a carefully planned treatment strategy for BD patients with intestinal involvement.
Objective Liver injury is a notable complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to clarify the clinical features and liver injury in Japanese patients with COVID-19.
Methods We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort study. All consecutive patients with COVID-19 who visited or were admitted to our hospital before May 12, 2020, were enrolled. Their demographics, symptoms, laboratory findings, comorbidities, concomitant drugs, treatment, and clinical course were reviewed. We defined liver injury as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels over the upper limit of normal.
Results Twenty-two patients with COVID-19 (median age, 47 years old; men/women, 13/9) were enrolled. Two patients had underlying liver diseases, and two were diagnosed as having COVID-19 without any symptoms. Elevated ALT and GGT levels were found in 12 and 12 patients, respectively, and liver injury was observed in 15 patients (68.2%). Compared with the patients without liver injury, those with liver injury had a significantly higher fever during the clinical course (median, 37.5°C vs. 38.8°C, p=0.006). A significant correlation was found between the highest serum liver values and the highest body temperature in each patient. Among the 22 patients, 4 required artificial respiratory support, and 2 died thereafter. Liver injury was not associated with the severity or mortality of COVID-19.
Conclusion Elevated levels of liver enzymes in the Japanese patients with COVID-19 were associated with the highest body temperature during the clinical course but not with the severity or mortality of COVID-19.
Objective Brain parenchymal involvement in Behçet's disease (BD) (neuro-Behçet's disease, NB) can be classified into acute type (ANB) and chronic progressive type (CPNB) based on differences in the clinical course and responses to corticosteroid treatment. The present study developed evidence-based recommendations for the management of NB.
Methods The task force of the research subcommittee consisted of seven board-certified rheumatologists (one was also a board-certified neurologist) and three board-certified neurologists. First, several clinical questions (CQs) were established. A systematic literature search was performed by The Japan Medical Library Association in order to develop recommendations. The final recommendations for each CQ developed from three blind Delphi rounds, for which the rate of agreement scores [range 1 (strongly disagree)-5(strongly agree)] was determined through voting by the task force.
Results A flow chart of the algorithm was established for the management of ANB and CPNB. Thirteen recommendations were developed for NB (general 1, ANB 7, CPNB 5). The strength of each recommendation was established based on the evidence level as well as the rate of agreement.
Conclusion The recommendations generated in this study are based on the results of uncontrolled evidence from open trials, retrospective cohort studies and expert opinions, due to the lack of randomized clinical trials. Nevertheless, these recommendations can be used for international studies, although verification by further properly designed controlled clinical trials is required.
We herein report three cases of patients with an ampullary neuroendocrine tumor (NET), who underwent endoscopic papillectomy (EP). No tumor recurrence or metastasis was detected in the patients for more than two years after EP. Generally, surgical resection is recommended for ampullary NETs by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society. However, as EP is less invasive than surgical resection, there are some reports of low-grade small ampullary NETs curatively treated by EP with long-term follow-up. We consider that EP may be a curative treatment for small and low-grade ampullary NETs without regional or distant metastasis.
Abdominal ultrasound in a 50-year-old Japanese man revealed a cystic lesion on the caudate lobe of the liver. Four-month follow-up imaging showed a rapid increase in the size of the cystic lesion. The patient underwent laparoscopic partial hepatectomy because of a suspicion and perceived risk that the lesion might be malignant. The initial histological diagnosis was a hepatic cyst. Eleven months later, computed tomography showed a giant cystic lesion in the abdominal cavity and multiple liver metastases. The patient underwent excision of the giant cystic lesion and a partial hepatectomy. Immunohistochemistry for the recurring lesion revealed undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver.
Follow-up computed tomography revealed a 40-mm pancreatic tail cyst in a 59-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus. An intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm was suspected; mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) was not considered because the patient was a man. During follow-up, cyst infection occurred but was improved by conservative treatment. At the 24-month follow up examination, cyst nodules had developed, corresponding to an increase in the carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level. Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCC) was diagnosed pathologically based on distal pancreatectomy. A diagnosis of male MCN/MCC is often delayed, which may lead to a poor prognosis. MCN infection is also rare and poorly recognized. We observed an atypical male case of MCN/MCC.
A 65-year-old man was followed for his coronary conditions using 320-multi detector row computed tomography (MDCT) for 30 months. He had soft plaque in the right coronary artery (RCA) [mean density of plaque was 22 hounsfield units (HU)]. His initial serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 72 mg/dL. After 30 months, his serum LDL-C was 26 mg/dL under 5.0 mg/day rosuvastatin and evolocumab 140 mg/2 weeks. MDCT showed a regression of the plaque in the RCA and the plaque density was 114 HU (intermediate plaque). In conclusion, intensive lipid-lowering therapy with evolocumab induced the regression and stabilization of coronary vulnerable plaque.
The selective arterial calcium stimulation test (SACST) is one of the most useful localization tests for insulinoma but can cause false-positive and/or unexpected multi arterial positive results that hamper clinical decisions. There are also several adverse effects, such as nausea and hypoglycemia, at the conventional dose (0.025 mEq/kg) of calcium injection. We herein report five consecutive insulinoma cases in which low-dose (0.005-0.007 mEq/kg) calcium injection for SACST led to successful insulinoma localization. No adverse effects of SACST were observed. In conclusion, a low-dose SACST can be a favorable option as an insulinoma localization test in terms of accuracy and safety.
An 83-year-old man was hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after a 10-day history of a persistent fever. Chest computed tomography showed extensive non-segmental ground glass opacity. Despite the initiation of lopinavir and ritonavir, respiratory failure progressed. Two days of polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column-direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) with adjunctive corticosteroid prevented his respiratory condition from worsening. For rapidly progressive COVID-19 cases, the early use of PMX-DHP may avoid the need for mechanical ventilation by suppressing local inflammation of the lung.
Autologous hematopoietic recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is rare in patients who receive myeloablative conditioning (MAC). Autologous hematopoietic recovery suggests graft rejection, leading to concerns about subsequent disease relapse. We herein report a rare case of a patient with acute leukemia who experienced autologous hematopoietic recovery after cord blood transplantation (CBT) with total body irradiation-based MAC. Chromosomal abnormalities were repeatedly detected without any disease relapse for eight months. The accumulation of similar cases is required to accurately assess the incidence and clinical outcomes of autologous hematopoietic recovery after CBT with MAC.
The prognosis of systemic amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is generally poor, hence requiring chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, while the prognosis of localized AL amyloidosis without an abnormal monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain is good. Localized AL amyloidosis has been previously reported to be observed in pulmonary, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal sites. However, only a few cases of localized lymph node AL amyloidosis have so far been reported. We herein present a case of localized lymph node AL amyloidosis that could possibly be misdiagnosed as systematic AL amyloidosis.
Dasatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is commonly used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. A rare side effect is peripheral neuropathy. A 54-year-old woman experienced gradually accelerated dysesthesia and hypoesthesia in her extremities, 2 months following treatment with dasatinib. Nerve conduction studies revealed a prolonged conduction velocity with temporal dispersion, indicating demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. After changing dasatinib to nilotinib, both her clinical symptoms and electrophysiological data gradually improved. We herein report the findings of this case with a review of the pertinent literature.
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a commensal bacterium indigenous to the skin. Previous reports have suggested that infection with P. acnes causes sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous disease. We present the case of a 63-year-old woman who developed subcutaneous nodules. A skin biopsy revealed necrotizing vasculitis and noncaseating granulomas, which are characteristic of sarcoidosis. Immunohistostaining revealed a P. acnes skin infection, which led to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Minocycline treatment resolved the infection and improved the patient's symptoms. We herein report a case in which immunohistochemistry was useful in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.