Since first cloned and reported by Zhang et al in 1994 (Nature 372:425), the obese gene and its product-leptin has been studied profoundly. Our knowledge in body weight regulation and the role played by leptin has increased substantially. Leptin serves as an adiposity signal to inform the brain of the adipose tissue mass in a negative feedback loop regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Many articles have reported weight loss at high altitude, but the explanation has been limited to loss of appetite. New ideas were highlighted after studies by Grosfeld et al and Ambrosini et al on the obese gene under hypoxia condition. Cells with hypoxia treatment upregulated obese gene transcription and suggested that enhancement of leptin secretion in vivo under hypoxia environment may be one of the potential therapeutic methods for obesity treatment.
Objective: It is evident that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Selectin is one of the key adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte infiltration. Recent studies demonstrated a significant association between the selectin gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to IgAN. However, the impact of selectin gene polymorphisms on the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been studied. Patients and Methods: To evaluate the influence of the selectin gene polymorphisms on the progression of IgAN, we designed specific primers for PCR genotyping and analyzed the association of selectin gene polymorphisms with the declining rate in renal function to its ESRD. Results: A total of 61 hemodialysis patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age at renal biopsy was 33.0±13.3 years old, and the mean age at the start of hemodialysis was 41.2±13.8 years old. The mean interval between the time points of renal biopsy and the start of hemodialysis was 8.2±6.5 years (ranging from 0 to 33 years). The interval was significantly longer in IgAN patients with a homoallele of C in C1402T, C1402/C1402, of the E-selectin gene, or a homoallele of C in C712T, C712/C712, of the L-selectin gene compared to others. The haplotype, which is a combination of C1402/C1402 and C712/C712, is able to distinguish the group that is at least a better prognosis than the severest prognostic one. Conclusion: This study provides a possible association between the selectin gene polymorphisms and the rapid progression to ESRD in IgAN patients.
A 42-year-old male with visceral obesity and a fatty liver presented with hepatopathy accompanied by jaundice and was diagnosed to have early syphilis based on the results of standard serologic tests and clinical findings. Both the subjective and objective findings including hepatopathy were rapidly alleviated by anti-syphilitic therapy. Severe hepatopathy accompanied by jaundice used to be considered a rare complication. However, due to contemporary unhealthy lifestyle patterns characterized by hypernutrition and a lack of exercise the occurrence of fatty liver is now dramatically increasing. Our findings suggest that the occurrence of fatty liver can exacerbate the damage to the hepatic parenchyma due to a Treponema pallidum infection.
It is sometimes very difficult to diagnose dissecting aortic aneurysms in the early stage. We report an autopsy case in which an acute myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction simultaneously occurred and the symptoms were transiently ameliorated in a patient with an acute aortic dissection.
We describe a 69-year-old woman with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage complicated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). She was hospitalized with nausea and vomiting in September 2003. Laboratory data demonstrated hyponatremia, hypoglycemia and prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Abdominal computed tomography showed bilateral adrenal enlargement. In October 2003, she demonstrated altered mental status with progressive hyponatremia, a high level of ACTH, and a low level of serum cortisol. She also showed thrombocytopenia, anti-cardiolipin IgG antibody, anti-β2GPI antibody, and lupus anticoagulants. After four months, anti-cardiolipin IgG antibody was still positive. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as having APS complicated with adrenal insufficiency due to hemorrhagic infarction. After treatment with corticosteroid, a low dose of aspirin and normal saline infusion, her condition quickly improved. Platelet counts and aPTT were also normalized. To our knowledge, this is the second Japanese case of APS complicated with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. APS should be considered an important underlying cause of adrenal insufficiency.
A 71-year-old man who had small cell lung cancer was referred to our institution. Before starting chemotherapy, anemia progressed and stool examination was positive for occult blood. An abdominal computed tomography scan with contrast medium enhancement of the gastrointestinal tract disclosed a small intestinal tumor. Histological examination after the surgery confirmed that the tumor was metastasis of lung cancer. The patient survived for 3 years after the resection. Although clinically apparent metastases of lung cancer to the small intestine are rare and are reported to have a poor prognosis, early detection and intervention might enhance the chance of survival.
We describe a 68-year-old male patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who suffered from relapse in bilateral upper lobes of the lung. The patient presented with cough, weakness and fever. A bronchovascular-lymphangitis-like shadow was detected in the bilateral upper lobes on a chest roentgenogram. Although cytological and cytofluorometric examinations revealed no malignant cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, trans-bronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) showed involvement of DLBCL in the bronchial mucosa. Recurrent lymphoma tends to extend along the bronchovascular bundles, resulting in granulomatous consolidation that may mimic tuberculosis and is likely to involve the lower lobes. Thus, TBLB proved to be essential for the diagnosis of the lung involvement of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
Adenovirus is one of the major causes of non-relapse morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancy. Fulminant hepatic failure is a rare manifestation of post-transplant complication with adenovirus. Extremely high mortality and aggressiveness of the clinical course have been posing clinical challenges for the diagnosis as well as for the treatment. Here, we report a case with disseminated adenovirus disease presenting with fulminant hepatic failure after bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
We report a 38-year-old Japanese woman who had cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) with a novel mutation (TGT to TAT) at nucleotide position 1241 (C388Y) in exon 7 of the Notch3 gene (NOTCH3). Immunostaining of a skin biopsy with a Notch3 monoclonal antibody is a beneficial method for the screening of CADASIL, particularly in the case of rare mutations outside the mutation hotspots in NOTCH3 as shown in this patient.