Objective The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is considered to be a sensitive marker of the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, in patients with a previous history of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), there is little information regarding the predictive value of this parameter beyond the period of early restenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate contributing factors to newly developed coronary artery disease in patients with a previous history of PCI after stabilization. Methods The clinical characteristics of 238 patients with a previous history of PCI who underwent coronary angiography following recurrent cardiac ischemia beyond the period of early restenosis were examined. Results Overall, 64% of the patients underwent late revascularization, while 31% and 50% underwent late target lesion revascularization and new lesion revascularization, respectively. A multivariate analysis identified the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio to be an independent contributor to late revascularization (hazard ratio (HR), 1.37; p<0.001). Similarly, the independent contributors to late target lesion revascularization and new lesion revascularization were the non-HDL-C level and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, respectively. Based on the median value of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, the patients were classified into high and low LDL-C/HDL-C ratio groups. The log-rank test revealed a significantly higher incidence of late revascularization in the high-LDL-C/HDL-C ratio group than in the low-LDL-C/HDL-C ratio group among the patients with an LDL-C level of ≥100 mg/dL (p=0.011). However, the difference between the two groups was diminished among the patients with an LDL-C level of <100 mg/dL (p=0.047), and only diabetes mellitus (HR, 2.239; p=0.009) was found to be an independent contributor to late coronary revascularization in these patients. Conclusion The LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is an important contributor to the development of new coronary artery disease in patients with a previous history of PCI beyond the period of early restenosis, particularly among patients with an LDL-C level of ≥100 mg/dL.
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the utility of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) for evaluating the efficacy of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, sitagliptin, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Sitagliptin (50 mg) was administered orally once daily in 67 outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Drug effectiveness was deemed present if the HbA1c or GA level decreased by 5% at week 4 and week 12 relative to the baseline value. Results The mean HbA1c level decreased from 8.1±1.0% at baseline to 7.8±0.9% at week 4 and 7.2±0.8% at week 12. The mean GA level decreased from 25.0±4.5% at baseline to 22.2±3.8% at week 4 and 20.8±3.5% at week 12. At week 4 and week 12, the drug was effective in 37.8% and 71.6% of the patients, respectively, when assessed based on changes in HbA1c, and in 83.6% and 97.0% of the patients, respectively, when assessed based on changes in GA. Conclusion GA is superior to HbA1c for evaluating the efficacy of sitagliptin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Objective Our previous study reported that categorizing diabetes patients according to the serum triglycerides-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-HDL) ratio is useful for estimating the risk of atherosclerosis, as a high TG-HDL ratio in patients with diabetes constitutes risk factors for atherosclerosis. Another study showed that a high hemoglobin level is associated with the risk of atherosclerosis. However, no previous studies have examined the association between the hemoglobin level and diabetes categorized by the TG-HDL ratio. In order to investigate these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,733 (1,299 men and 2,434 women) Japanese participants 30-89 years of age undergoing a general health checkup. Methods We investigated the association between the hemoglobin levels and the incidence of diabetes in all subjects, who were divided into tertiles according to the TG-HDL ratio. Diabetes was defined as an HbA1c (NGSP) level of ≥6.5% and/or the initiation of glucose-lowering or insulin therapy. Results Of the 265 diabetes patients identified in this study, 116 had a high TG-HDL ratio (high TG-HDL diabetes) and 71 had a low TG-HDL ratio (low TG-HDL diabetes). Independent from classical cardiovascular risk factors, the multivariate odds ratio of a 1 SD (standard deviation) increment in hemoglobin (1.30 g/dL for men, 1.16 g/dL for women) was 1.04 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.88-1.22) for all patients with diabetes, 1.44 (95%CI: 1.17-1.77) for the patients with high TG-HDL diabetes and 0.67 (95%CI: 0.54-0.83) for the patients with low TG-HDL diabetes. Conclusion The hemoglobin level is positively associated with high TG-HDL diabetes and inversely associated with low TG-HDL diabetes. These findings suggest that measuring the hemoglobin level is clinically relevant for estimating the risk of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes categorized according to the TG-HDL ratio.
A 78-year-old man with abdominal pain was diagnosed with a rupture of a gastric artery aneurysm. The serum Na level promptly decreased from 135 to 110 mmol/L within several days. Brain magnetic resonance angiography revealed severe vasoconstriction of the cerebral basilar artery and anterior cerebral artery. There was neither dehydration nor edema. The plasma arginine vasopressin level was 3.3 pg/mL, despite hypoosmolality. These findings indicated a diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) derived from severe vasoconstriction of the cerebral arteries. The administration of 7.5 mg of tolvaptan rapidly increased the serum Na level from 123 to 138 mmol/L within the first 24 hours, thereafter continuously maintaining a normal level. Treatment with tolvaptan corrected the patient's dilutional hyponatremia.
We experienced a case of primary intestinal follicular lymphoma and premature atherosclerosis in a diabetic patient with familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL) that was detected when the patient was evaluated for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). As FPL is generally considered to be rare, FPL is often underdiagnosed, especially in obese patients. Therefore, the prevalence of FPL is higher than previous estimates. Our case illustrates that clinicians should perform screening for atherosclerosis and malignancy at the preoperative evaluation and may need to perform metabolic surgery earlier to prevent the development of excess truncal fat, complicated diabetes and atherosclerosis in patients with FPL.
Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, is known to increase the heart rate; however, its effects on glucose metabolism remain unclear. We observed that the blood glucose level varied in parallel with the heart rate immediately after starting or stopping cilostazol therapy in three patients with type 2 diabetes. This finding indicates that cilostazol induces hyperglycemia and tachycardia in a portion of diabetic patients, presumably via similar pharmacological effects on different organs. Much more attention should be paid to the possible effects of cilostazol on glycemic control, including taking into consideration the risk-benefit ratio of cilostazol use and individual circumstances.
The acute onset of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) is often accompanied by acute kidney injury, which can lead to congestive heart failure and lung edema. In this report, we present two cases of NS-induced acute kidney injury successfully treated with a low dose of carperitide, a human atrial natriuretic peptide. In combination with standard diuretic therapy and immunotherapy, carperitide retained the renal function and spared the need for renal replacement therapy, including hemodialysis. Although further investigation in clinical trials is required to validate these findings, carperitide may be useful for maintaining the renal function in cases of NS-induced acute kidney injury.
A 78-year-old man was referred to our department with a one-week history of dyspnea and coughing. A chest X-ray showed massive left pleural effusion. Computed tomography revealed diffuse irregular thickening of the left pleura similar to malignant mesothelioma and multiple nodules in both lungs. The patient died of respiratory failure nine days after hospitalization. An autopsy revealed metastasis to the pleura and lungs from urothelial carcinoma of the left kidney.
A 47-year-old man was referred to our hospital with an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray. He had a history of untreated chronic sinusitis and suspected ulcerative colitis (UC). Chest CT revealed a diffuse centrilobular granular shadow, while laboratory tests demonstrated an increased proportion of neutrophils; however, no microorganisms were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Therefore, sinobronchial syndrome or small airway disease associated with UC was diagnosed, and the patient was treated with long-term erythromycin therapy. Small airway disease associated with UC is usually treated with steroids. Our experience shows that airway involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease can be treated with macrolides.
A 63-year-old man with rheumatoid arthritis developed multifocal encephalopathy and limbic encephalitis following therapy with tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody. Anti-glutamate receptor ε2 antibodies were later found to be positive in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. This case highlights the possibility of the development of encephalopathy after treatment with tocilizumab, which may also induce autoimmune limbic encephalitis.
A 67-year-old woman developed dropped head. Her neck was severely flexed, with prominent cervical paraspinal muscles, although no parkinsonism was observed. Brain MRI showed no significant findings. We considered dystonia as the cause of the dropped head and administered trihexyphenidyl, an anticholinergic. After 10 years of follow-up, remarkable psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations regarding insects, appeared. Following the discontinuation of trihexyphenidyl, the psychotic symptoms decreased but still remained. 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography (123I-IMP SPECT) revealed hypoperfusion in the bilateral occipital lobes. We diagnosed the patient with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). This case suggests that dropped head syndrome may precede the onset of DLB.
We herein describe a case of acute spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) during the administration of high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous heparin for the treatment of active lupus nephritis. After SSDH was promptly diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the patient recovered well with conservative treatment involving the discontinuation of heparin sodium. Although SSDH is a rare complication, it should be considered as a cause of neurological manifestations in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus.
A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia in 2006; however, the disease was not progressive. Four years later, purpura, peripheral neuropathy, and increased levels of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (583 EU/mL) and C-reactive protein (2.27 mg/dL) were observed, and a diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis was made. Treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine was initiated. However, on the 35th hospital day, chest computed tomography showed pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema without aggravation of the interstitial pneumonia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pneumomediastinum as a complication of microscopic polyangiitis associated with interstitial pneumonia.
A 73-year-old man with a history of myasthenia gravis (MG) was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) based on a history of polyarthritis and positivity for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). He presented with a high level of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and RS3PE syndrome-like pitting edema in the extremities, which improved following treatment with low-dose prednisolone. This is an interesting case of ACPA-positive RA associated with RS3PE syndrome-like pitting edema and a high VEGF level.
The dengue virus is responsible for a wide range of symptoms that can be classified into two distinct syndromes: classical dengue fever and severe dengue fever. Among the complicating forms, hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) has been previously reported in case series of patients with secondary dengue fever outside of endemic settings. Of note, the occurrence of HPS has not yet been included among the criteria for defining severe dengue fever. We herein present three patients with HPS related to confirmed primary dengue virus infection. Clinicians should therefore consider hemophagocytosis as a complication during severe dengue infection in naïve patients.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease recently discovered in northeastern and central China that is caused by a novel bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV). Humans are primarily infected through tick bites. Four previous reports have discussed SFTS infection from person to person, all cases of which were symptomatic. In this report, we analysed the epidemiological and clinical data for a cluster of cases, including one case of secondary-asymptomatic infection, and review the literature regarding SFTSV transmission from person to person. We conclude that SFTSV caused the asymptomatic infections via person-to-person contact with infected blood.
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is genetically heterogeneous and various genotypes are spreading worldwide. We herein report a case of systematically disseminated Japan-intrinsic CA-MRSA infection that was successfully treated. A genetically identical single strain was isolated from a total of 11 different parts of the patient's body, and the pathogen was found to be multilocus sequence type 8, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec IV, coagulase type III and negative for both Panton-Valentine leukocidin and arginine catabolic mobile element. The epidemiology and pathogenicity of the Japan-intrinsic CA-MRSA strain remain unknown, and further investigation of this life-threatening organism is warranted.
A 14-year-old girl underwent a medical checkup for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection because her grandmother had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis three months earlier. The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) showed a positive result. The patient's chest X-ray findings were normal. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a single mass lesion in the right lower lobe of the lung. A sputum smear of acid-fast bacilli was positive; however, the polymerase chain reaction results for tuberculosis were negative. We diagnosed the patient with pulmonary tuberculosis based on the fact that she had come in contact with a tuberculosis patient. Six weeks later, a liquid culture examination for acid-fast bacilli was found to be positive and the acid-fast bacillus was identified as M. tuberculosis. The use of chest CT is not routinely recommended in all children suspected of having M. tuberculosis infection. However, IGRA-positive children who report frequent contact with infected individuals should undergo CT tomography if chest X-rays do not show any abnormal shadows.