Objective Both a percutaneous biopsy and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) have been widely performed for liver tumors. However, no studies have compared these two biopsy methods.
Method A retrospective study was conducted using medical records for patients who underwent a liver tumor biopsy from 2012 to 2019. The cases were classified into two groups for a comparison: an ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy group (percutaneous group) and an EUS-FNA group (EUS group).
Results A total of 106 patients (47 in the percutaneous group and 59 in the EUS group) were included. The final diagnosis was malignant in 100 cases and benign in the remaining 6 cases. While the median lesion diameter was 62 mm in the percutaneous group, it was significantly smaller (34 mm) in the EUS group (p <0.01). The EUS group had more left lobe tumors than right lobe tumors. All cases of caudate lobe tumor (four cases) underwent EUS-FNA. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the procedure were 95%, 100%, and 96% in the percutaneous group and 100%, 100%, and 100% in the EUS group, respectively showing no significant difference. Adverse events were reported in 17% of the percutaneous group, which was significantly lower than in the EUS group (2%; p <0.01).
Conclusion A percutaneous biopsy and EUS-FNA have equivalent diagnostic qualities for liver tumors, although EUS-FNA tends to be associated with fewer adverse events. A complete understanding of the characteristics of each procedure is essential when choosing the best biopsy method for each particular case.
Objective The popularity of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has increased over the past decades. Despite improvements in in-hospital mortality rates, it is clinically important to investigate the prognoses after discharge. However, data on the mode of death and prognostic factors are limited. We analyzed these factors in a Japanese cohort in the modern p-PCI era.
Methods Between January 2004 and December 2017, a total of 1,222 patients who underwent p-PCI within 24 hours from the onset of STEMI and were alive at discharge (mean age, 67.7 years old; men, 75.5%), were evaluated. The two-year mortality was analyzed using a Cox regression model, and the mode of death was evaluated.
Results The rate of mortality at 2 years was 5.7%. Non-cardiac death was more frequent than cardiac death (62.6% vs. 37.4%). A Cox multivariate analysis identified the following as independent predictors of the 2-year mortality: hemoglobin (log-transformed) [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.048; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.008-0.29; p<0.001], age above 80 years old (adjusted HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.30-3.91; p=0.004), Killip class ≥II (adjusted HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.17-3.39; p=0.011), brain natriuretic peptide level (log-transformed) (adjusted HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.09-2.01; p=0.013), and body mass index (log-transformed) (adjusted HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.030-0.84; p=0.030).
Conclusion This study demonstrated that the 2-year mortality was 5.7% in STEMI survivors after p-PCI. Non-cardiac death was more frequent than cardiac death. Compared to well-known clinical variables, angiographic findings did not have a significant influence on the mid-term mortality.
Objective Painless thyroiditis (PT) is characterized by transient hyperthyroidism with a low 99mTc uptake. We herein describe 11 cases of PT that occurred during treatment with potassium iodide (KI) for Graves' disease (GD).
Methods From August 2016 to December 2018, 11 women with GD who developed PT during treatment with KI were enrolled. Of these patients, 10 discontinued antithyroid drug (ATD) because of side effects and began KI, and 1 patient switched from thiamazole to KI because she was planning a pregnancy. The mean patient age was 40.1 years old. Thyroid function tests, thyroid autoantibodies including anti thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb), and M22-TRAb, and the 99mTc uptake were evaluated at the time of PT.
Results All 11 women patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis in which 99mTc scans revealed a low uptake of 0.34±0.15% (normal 0.70-1.02%). M22-TRAb was absent in all cases except for one (2.4 IU/L), whereas TgAb and TPOAb were present in 10 and 6 cases, respectively. Ten patients returned to a euthyroid status without passing through the post-hypothyroid phase, and one patient underwent total thyroidectomy during the euthyroid phase of PT. Only four patients require beta-blocker therapy. All patients with KI-induced PT except 1 displayed GD remission during a mean observation period of 23.3 months, and 1 patient had recurrence of GD after PT.
Conclusion We encountered 11 GD patients who developed PT during treatment with KI, which was initiated after ATD had been discontinued due to side effects.
Objective Metabolic syndrome represents a unified condition of atherosclerotic diseases caused by abdominal obesity. The aims of this study were to examine the applicability of the prevalent fixed cut-off values of the abdominal circumference (AC) and body mass index (BMI) to age and gender groups and to identify suitable lifestyle modification factors.
Methods We defined an outcome as having ≥ 2 risk components that are necessary to diagnose metabolic syndrome and examined the cross-sectional association of the AC and BMI with the outcome. We also assessed the effects of time-updated lifestyle information on metabolic traits using longitudinal data.
Patients We enrolled 22,953 beneficiaries of a corporate health insurance scheme who underwent annual health examinations between January 2004 and December 2014.
Results The AC [per 5-cm increase, odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-1.24] and BMI (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.13) were significantly associated with the outcome, adjusted for age, gender, current smoking status, drinking habits, and other lifestyle information. The association between the outcome and AC was modified by gender (p for interaction = 0.033), and the association between the outcome and BMI was modified by age group (p for interaction = 0.049). In the longitudinal analysis, current smoking, drinking habits, and unhealthy eating habits were associated with an increased AC and BMI, whereas regular physical activity was associated with a decreased AC and BMI.
Conclusion We showed that the association between the AC or BMI and metabolic syndrome was modified by gender or age group. Further studies will be needed to customize the national health screening and education programs.
We herein report two patients with early-stage autoimmune gastritis who did not exhibit complete atrophy. Endoscopic examinations showed no manifestations of severe atrophic gastritis, but revealed a mosaic pattern with slight swelling of the areae gastricae restricted to the corpus in both patients. In the patient in case 2, upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography revealed a slightly protruded irregular areae gastricae throughout the gastric body, except for in the antrum. Our findings emphasize the need for clinicians to recognize that autoimmune gastritis might be present in the absence of severe atrophic gastritis; this can aid in the identification of the early stages of autoimmune gastritis.
We herein report two patients with endometriosis in the cecum. Both patients presented with a protruding, subepithelial tumor on colonoscopy and were diagnosed with cecal endometriosis after surgical resection. It is notable that the cecal lesions were not initially identified on computed tomography (CT), while CT colonography with air/carbon dioxide insufflation resulted in the detection of the cecal tumor. These cases highlight the possibility of false-negative results on conventional CT in patients with cecal endometriosis. We consider CT colonography with air/carbon dioxide insufflation useful for detecting cecal tumors in such cases.
Self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) are widely used for malignant biliary stricture (MBS). Acute pancreatitis is an early complication following SEMS placement. In the present case, the patient developed severe acute pancreatitis after SEMS placement for MBS because of metastatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic sphincterotomy and an endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube placement were performed. After seven days, an uncovered SEMS was placed; however, severe acute pancreatitis occurred, and the SEMS was drawn out emergently. In SEMS placement for patients with MBS caused by non-pancreatic cancer, SEMS should be selected carefully while considering each patient's case.
Basic and clinical research have shown that the expression of molecules involved in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell signaling pathway is related to the sensitivity to molecular-targeted agents. We herein report a case of HCC that was effectively treated with lenvatinib after a poor response to sorafenib. The tumor showed a high expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4, which is reportedly related to the sensitivity to lenvatinib in vitro. The information obtained from this case and from our literature review highlights the importance of assessing the expression of the molecules involved in tumors for effective precision medicine.
A 47-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital because of a sustained high fever with diarrhea 12 days after a flight from India. Liver enzymes were elevated with rose spots, hepatosplenomegaly, relative bradycardia, and acute cholecystitis. A liver biopsy depicted the dense infiltration of lymphocytes and Kupffer cells in sinusoids and the granulomatous formation in the parenchyma. The liver damage was initially resolved with the administration of ceftriaxone for 16 days but flared up 1 week later. Laboratory tests yielded positive reactions for Salmonella typhi and hepatitis E virus RNA. The pathophysiological presentations of concurrent typhoid and type E hepatitis are discussed.
An 81-year-old woman presented with abdominal distension and right hypochondrial pain. Abdominal contrast computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an 11-cm gallbladder tumor. The patient was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration from the gastric antrum. Thereafter, the gallbladder tumor enlarged, and cholecysto-duodenal and transverse colon fistulas were formed. A covered metal stent was placed on the transverse colon, and polyglycolic acid sheets were injected into the duodenum to close the fistulas endoscopically. Endoscopic closure is less invasive than surgery and considered effective for patients with poor general health conditions.
A 48-year-old woman with a 9-year-history of anorexia nervosa (AN) was admitted complaining of generalized bone pain. Blood tests showed hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatasemia, and a radiological survey revealed multiple rib fractures, suggesting complication with osteomalacia. Two years earlier, she had undergone subtotal colectomy for colon cancer. Her serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration was below the detectable level. In addition to a poor nutritional intake and insufficient sun exposure, malabsorption of fat-soluble substances in the intestine and phosphate loss from the kidneys might have contributed to the development of her osteomalacia.
A patient with recurrent plasmacytoma with massive ascites exhibited vancomycin intoxication and cefepime-induced encephalopathy due to renal dysfunction. The ascitic accumulation of these drugs was suspected because of the refractory intoxicated state. To remove these drugs that had accumulated in the blood and ascites, abdominal drainage was performed in addition to online hemodiafiltration. If patients with renal dysfunction and massive ascites develop vancomycin intoxication and cefepime-induced encephalopathy that cannot be improved by drug discontinuation, physicians should suspect ascitic accumulation and evaluate the ascitic concentration. Furthermore, if a high accumulation in massive ascites occurs, physicians should perform abdominal drainage along with blood purification.
Increasing the T-cell immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) antibody may ultimately have detrimental effects. We present the case of a patient with advanced non-small cell lung cancer who developed active tuberculosis (TB) after initial treatment with pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody. Pembrolizumab was resumed after completing anti-TB treatment, and no relapse of TB was observed clinically or radiologically. Checkpoint inhibitor-related pneumonitis (CIP) is first suspected when a pulmonary shadow presents during treatment with an anti-PD-1 antibody. It is sometimes difficult to diagnose CIP using computed tomographic images alone. Careful testing, including bacterial examinations and bronchoscopic biopsy, should be performed.
Heerfordt's syndrome is a rare subtype of sarcoidosis and features a combination of facial palsy, parotid swelling, and uveitis, associated with a low-grade fever. Cases with two of three symptoms are called "incomplete Heerfordt's syndrome." Heerfordt's syndrome involving other cranial nerve symptoms is relatively rare. We herein report a case of incomplete Heerfordt's syndrome presenting with trigeminal nerve palsy and a reversed halo sign, a rare manifestation of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The histological diagnosis following a biopsy of the parotid gland and endobronchial ultrasound-guided trans-bronchial needle aspiration of the mediastinal lymph nodes was sarcoidosis. The symptoms and lung lesions improved after corticosteroid therapy.
A 33-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for fever and abdominal pain. A blood analysis revealed pancytopenia and increased serum pancreatic enzymes with disseminated intravascular coagulation. A detailed examination revealed acute pancreatitis, with diffuse swelling of the pancreas and diffuse beaded dilatation of the main pancreatic duct, which mimicked autoimmune pancreatitis complicated by acute myeloid leukemia. Systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy led to the remission of leukemia and pancreatitis. We hypothesized that the etiology of acute pancreatitis was invasion of leukemia cells. Acute pancreatitis is rare as a symptom of leukemia; however, we should consider the possibility of leukemia during the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.
The pathophysiology of neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) remains to be elucidated. However, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound sonography have provided new insights into the mechanism underlying the development of NA and its diagnosis. We report a case of idiopathic distal NA with hyperintensity and thickening in the inferior trunk extending to the posterior and medial fasciculus of the left brachial plexus, which was detected by magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) with diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS). The abnormal signal intensity diminished after the improvement of symptoms following corticosteroid treatment. MRN with DWI can help diagnose distal NA and evaluate the post-therapeutic response.
A patient with no medical history was admitted to our hospital with consciousness disturbance and diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhaging in the bilateral hemisphere based on computed tomography. A blood test showed an abnormal coagulation capacity. He died of intracerebral hemorrhaging 11 hours after the onset. An autopsy revealed latent advanced prostate cancer metastasis to multiple organs. Notably, we found no evidence of intracerebral hemorrhaging, including arteriovenous malformation or cancer metastasis, in the brain. He was ultimately diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhaging due to coagulopathy associated with latent advanced prostate cancer. Coagulopathy caused by advanced prostate cancer, which was first identified by autopsy, can lead to intracerebral hemorrhaging.
Decreased cell-mediated immunity can reactivate Varicella zoster virus (VZV), which can lead to various neurological complications, including vasculopathy. We herein report the case of a patient with acute stroke with progressive internal carotid artery stenosis due to VZV vasculopathy after chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma. Treatment for VZV vasculopathy improved the stenosis and prevented recurrent stroke. VZV vasculopathy is an important treatable cause of stroke in immunosuppressed patients.
A 78-year-old man suspected of having α-synucleinopathies received a high score on a validated questionnaire for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Although he did in fact have unpleasant dreams and vigorous behaviors, polysomnography (PSG) found only obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH). The RBD-like symptoms corresponded with arousal responses, namely augmented inspiratory effort and leg movements, to his frequent apnea-hypopnea events during REM sleep. Thus, severe OSAH might cause RBD-like symptoms. PSG can discriminate real RBD from RBD-like symptoms associated with severe OSAH and therefore may be essential for determining an appropriate course of treatment in certain patients.
We herein report a 31-year-old man with recurrent aseptic meningitis associated with Kikuchi's disease. Although aseptic meningitis is the most common neurological complication of Kikuchi's disease, its characteristics remain unclear, especially in recurrent cases. A literature review revealed that aseptic meningitis associated with Kikuchi's disease was more likely to occur in men and was associated with a low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/serum glucose ratio. Lymphadenopathy tended to occur simultaneously or after the onset of meningitis. When encountering a patient with aseptic meningitis of unknown etiology, it may be worthwhile to focus on the CSF/serum glucose ratio and lymphadenopathy with a careful examination.
Ethambutol-induced optic neuropathy (EON) is a well-known complication, although low-dose ethambutol seldom causes EON. An 85-year-old man with non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease was taking antibiotics, including low-dose ethambutol. On day 85 of treatment, the diagnosis of EON was made. Despite prior discontinuation, his best corrected visual acuity drastically deteriorated from 20/17 (right eye) and 20/20 (left eye) to 20/330 (right eye) and 20/1,000 (left eye) within 3 weeks, and this symptom did not resolve. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases with drastically progressing and irreversible EON even after the withdrawal of low-dose and short-term ethambutol.