Objective The effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in Japanese patients have not been reported. We assessed the effects of changing CPAP devices (from the Philips Respironics device to the ResMed device) on the control of OSA.
Methods We retrospectively examined 13 patients with OSA who voluntarily changed from the Philips Respironics device to the ResMed device due to a Philips Respironics CPAP device recall. Data on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) were obtained from the CPAP devices for three months before and after changing the devices.
Results The AHI obtained from the CPAP devices significantly decreased from 4.4 (3.1-10.7) events/h to 2.0 (0.8-3.6) events/h when patients changed devices (p=0.022). The AHI decreased to <5 events/h after changing devices in 4 patients, whereas it had been ≥5 events/h before changing devices in 6 patients.
Conclusion Changing CPAP devices can decrease the AHI.
Objective Although extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are a global threat, as they may cause respiratory infection, the factors associated with the isolation of these bacteria from sputum remain unclear. We therefore explored the factors related to ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolated from sputum samples.
Methods This study included consecutive patients admitted to our department from 2010 to 2021 with K. pneumoniae or E. coli isolated from their sputum. The patients were categorized into ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing groups, and the factors associated with ESBL-producing bacteria isolation were assessed using a binomial logistic regression analysis.
Results We included 82 patients, and ESBL-producing pathogens were isolated from 23 (28%). The usage rates of cephem [odds ratio (OR) 4.000, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.402-11.409, p=0.010], quinolone (OR 2.961, 95% CI 1.097-7.996, p=0.032), and macrolide (OR 4.273, 95% CI 1.518-12.028, p=0.006) in the past year were significantly higher in the ESBL-producing group than in the non-ESBL-producing group. The multivariate analysis revealed that the applications of cephem (adjusted OR: 4.130, 95% CI: 1.233-13.830, p=0.021) and macrolide (adjusted OR: 6.365, 95% CI: 1.922-21.077, p=0.002) was independently associated with the isolation of ESBL-producing bacteria.
Conclusion A history of cephem and macrolide use can be considered a risk factor for ESBL-producing bacteria isolation from sputum samples. Physicians need to consider these risk factors when determining antibiotics for the treatment of patients with respiratory infections.
Objective This study explored the predictors of hydroxychloroquine intolerance and propose appropriate methods to initiate hydroxychloroquine in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Methods This retrospective study registered consecutive patients who were diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus and started treatment with hydroxychloroquine between 2015 and 2021. Any adverse events that required dose reduction or cessation of hydroxychloroquine, indicating intolerance to the drug, were recorded for up to 26 weeks after initiation of hydroxychloroquine.
Results A total of 130 patients were included. Hydroxychloroquine intolerance due to adverse drug reactions was observed in 28 patients (21.5%), including gastrointestinal symptoms in 15 (11.5%) and cutaneous reactions in 7 (5.4%). Furthermore, the intolerance was observed more frequently in the maintenance group (patients treated daily with <20 mg prednisolone) than in the induction group (7.1% vs. 25.5%, p=0.04), and none of the patients in the induction group developed cutaneous reactions. The initial dose of hydroxychloroquine per ideal body weight was associated with hydroxychloroquine intolerance in a dose-dependent manner. Multivariable analyses revealed that the hydroxychloroquine dose per ideal body weight and higher levels of C4 predicted hydroxychloroquine intolerance. In particular, C4 levels were positively correlated with cutaneous reactions, whereas the dose of prednisolone was negatively correlated with gastrointestinal reactions.
Conclusion Low-dose hydroxychloroquine may be optimal for induction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who have high C4 levels or are taking low doses of steroids.
Heyde's syndrome is a disease in which patients with aortic stenosis (AS) bleed from angiodysplasia. An 80-year-old woman with a history of severe AS was referred to our hospital with melena and anemia. The patient underwent jejunal resection after repeated blood transfusions. A pathological examination revealed angiodysplasia, and the patient's plasma lacked high-molecular-weight von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers, leading to the diagnosis of Heyde's syndrome. The patient underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) one year after the diagnosis, and the VWF index recovered. This is a valuable case in which the pathological analysis of angiodysplasia associated with Heyde's syndrome was possible.
A 46-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the examination of a flat elevated lesion with an erosion-like depression, located on the greater curvature of the antrum. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Histological findings of the resected specimen demonstrated a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with a diameter of 12 mm. No atrophy was observed in the tumor-adjacent mucosa. Serum Helicobacter pylori antibody estimation and 13C-urea breath tests yielded negative results. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for both gastric mucin and intestinal mucin. The final diagnosis was well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with a gastrointestinal phenotype that originated in mucosa uninfected by H. pylori.
A 23-year-old man diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) was treated with infliximab. He developed new-onset sore throat and dysphagia during admission, and nasopharyngoscopy revealed epiglottic ulceration. Laryngeal ulceration was considered as an extraintestinal manifestation of CD owing to treatment failure with antibiotics and hydrocortisone. This strongly suggested that laryngeal ulceration was a complication of CD because of the rapid improvement in the symptoms and lesions after prednisolone administration. Furthermore, this treatment process demonstrated the superior anti-inflammatory effect of prednisolone over that of hydrocortisone and supported the assumption of inflammation related to CD.
Asymptomatic splenic nodules were detected incidentally in two middle-aged women at an annual checkup. They showed no abnormalities on laboratory tests, but imaging studies revealed splenic nodules. No other localized lesions were found. Splenic nodules were hypoechoic on ultrasonography (US), hypovascular on contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and showed a low intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. We performed US-guided percutaneous aspiration biopsies using 21-gauge needles without complications, including bleeding. Pathological specimens showed noncaseating granulomas, so both patients were diagnosed with isolated splenic sarcoidosis. A US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a safe and useful method for diagnosing splenic nodules.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a left ventricular systolic dysfunction associated with heart failure (HF) in late-term pregnancy or peripartum. A 29-year-old pregnant woman with no history of cardiac disease noted lower extremity edema around 34 weeks' gestation with significant weight gain. She delivered twins via caesarean section, and the edema regressed postpartum. On postpartum day 4, however, she experienced difficulty breathing at night and was diagnosed with HF owing to PPCM. HF treatment along with cabergoline was initiated. With low prolactin blood levels, her symptoms and cardiac function improved over time. This case demonstrated the usefulness of anti-prolactin therapy with cabergoline in PPCM.
A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the further evaluation of drug-refractory heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction. A family history interview revealed that men in her family had died of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), whereas she had no skeletal muscle disorder. Myocardial histopathology revealed a reduced dystrophin expression in the cardiomyocyte membrane, and a dystrophin (DMD) gene analysis identified a duplication in exon 8-9 on Xp21, suggesting that she had a cardiac-specific phenotype of dystrophinopathy, i.e. X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLDCM). In conclusion, careful family history interviews and an investigation of dystrophinopathy are required to detect XLDCM in women.
A 60-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with acromegaly at 28 years old had difficulty walking due to worsening back pain. He had been treated with somatostatin analog since 57 years old, but his pain and numbness continued to worsen. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging showed disc bulging at L3/4 and L4/5, and he was diagnosed with lumbar spinal canal stenosis due to hypertrophy of the yellow ligament. Patients with acromegaly may complain of osteoarthropathy, so we must pay attention to the symptoms of spinal canal stenosis in collaboration with orthopedic specialists.
We encountered an 86-year-old Japanese woman who presented with proteinuria (0.4 g/day) and hematuria (red blood cell sediment >100/high-power field), a decreased renal function (serum creatinine, 1.51 mg/dL), and elevated myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) levels (231 IU/mL) during treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with abatacept (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 agent) and adalimumab (a tumor necrosis factor-α agent). A kidney biopsy showed pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis, and ANCA-associated vasculitis was diagnosed. Treatment with tocilizumab (an interleukin 6 receptor antibody) monotherapy resulted in the improvement of renal findings and normalization of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity and serum ANCA levels. Tocilizumab can also suppress ANCA-associated vasculitis.
Intravenous bisphosphonate therapy is used to prevent fractures in the management of bone metastasis. However, it may induce renal damage. We herein report an 81-year-old woman with Fanconi syndrome and osteomalacia who had been diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer and received treatment with zolendronate for over 5 years. Her bone markers normalized after switching zolendronate to denosmab and starting vitamin D and mineral supplementation. This case shows that chronic renal damage induced by zolendronate can cause osteomalacia. In patients with intravenous zolendronate therapy, close monitoring of renal and bone markers is needed, even under long-term therapy.
We herein report a fatal case of invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (IMA) with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) diagnosed based on autopsy findings. A 76-year-old man presented with severe respiratory discomfort on admission. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a peripheral distribution of consolidation. Although his respiratory status improved after steroid therapy, re-exacerbation occurred, and the patient died on day 131. A bronchoscopic lung biopsy had shown organizing pneumonia, but a post-mortem examination surprisingly revealed IMA with organizing pneumonia. IMA presenting with ARDS as the first symptom is extremely rare.
Neutropenia, a rare immune-related adverse event, affects patients receiving treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We herein report a case of pembrolizumab-induced agranulocytosis. An 83-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced-stage lung carcinoma concomitant with splenomegaly complicated by hypersplenism, causing pancytopenia. To avoid the risk of bone marrow suppression due to cytotoxic chemotherapy, pembrolizumab monotherapy was chosen. However, the patient developed agranulocytosis despite the resolution of pancytopenia through splenectomy performed after the fourth pembrolizumab cycle. Neutrophil counts improved after steroid treatment but not after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment. This case demonstrated that neutropenia can sometimes develop abruptly after several ICI therapy cycles.
A 34-year-old pregnant woman in the 34th week of gestation with uncontrolled asthma was admitted because of asthma exacerbation. Although she received bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids, respiratory failure rapidly progressed. Chest computed tomography revealed a mass occluding approximately 80% of the tracheal lumen. After urgent Caesarean section, endobronchial resection was performed. The pathological findings of the resected tumor were compatible with tracheal glomus tumor. Tracheal tumors are often misdiagnosed as asthma, but its complication with asthma is rare. Even if the diagnosis of asthma is definitive, clinicians should consider coexisting diseases, including tracheal tumors, when asthma control is poor.
The early diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis in the emergency department is challenging. A 70-year-old man presented to the emergency department after falling with new-onset convulsions. Brain unenhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed right frontal hemorrhage indicative of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Brain unenhanced CT on day 2 revealed increased density in the anterior superior sagittal sinus (SSS), namely 'dense inverted triangle sign.' Brain magnetic resonance venography showed a filling defect in the anterior SSS. When interpreting unenhanced brain CT findings in the setting of acute convulsions or cortical stroke, including SAH, cerebral sinus abnormalities near stroke foci should be evaluated carefully.
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) causes autoimmune diseases of multiple organs and can also present with neurological symptoms. We here report a 58-year-old man who presented with progressive gait disturbance that had started 7 years ago. He had spasticity, reduced deep sensations, and truncal cerebellar ataxia. Laboratory examinations revealed autoantibody-related cobalamin deficiency and the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. His gait worsened after cobalamin replenishment, but additional steroid therapy was effective. APS can cause refractory gait disturbance that requires not only cobalamin replenishment but also immunotherapy.
An 84-year-old woman with IgG4-related disease presented with jaundice and liver dysfunction after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. Diagnostic imaging showed no stenotic lesions in the bile ducts. A liver biopsy was performed because of the enlarged liver. Infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, which accounted for approximately 74% of total plasma cells, was found in the portal area, but there was no evidence of periportal hepatitis, and inflammatory cell infiltration into the lobular space was minimal. IgG4-related hepatopathy was diagnosed. The patient achieved spontaneous remission with no treatment and only follow-up and remains under observation at the time of writing.
A prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is observed in patients with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and is one of the risk factors for severe disease. The mechanism underlying a prolonged APTT is largely unknown. The presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies in various viral infections has been documented but never reported in a patient with SFTS. We herein report the first SFTS patient with APTT prolongation and concurrent transiently positive aPL antibodies (lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies) with no coagulation factor deficiency.