Background The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the speed of sound (SOS) in the calcaneus using a quantitative ultrasound device before and after the competitive season in female collegiate athletes. Methods Thirty female collegiate athletes participated in the present study: 13 volleyball players, 9 tennis players and 8 karate practitioners. The SOS in the right calcaneus was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device and compared with the percentage of young adult mean. Dietary information was obtained with a food frequency questionnaire. Results After the training period, lean body mass significantly increased in volleyball players, whereas there were no significant changes in tennis players and karate practitioners. Calcium intake significantly decreased in the volleyball and tennis players, whereas it did not change significantly in the karate practitioners. Energy, and vitamin D and K intakes did not change significantly in all 3 groups. After the training period, the SOS and the percentage of young adult mean significantly increased in the volleyball and tennis players, whereas they did not change significantly in the karate practitioners. Conclusion These results suggest that volleyball and tennis practice could increase the SOS in the calcaneus after the competitive season.
Objectives The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer (GC) screened in the era of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) eradication. Screening programs should be designed with these characteristics in mind. Design The data from the endoscopic screening program for GC in Ota Memorial Hospital between June 2012 and July 2014 were reviewed in relation to the ABC method, Hp eradication history (Hp-er Hx), and endoscopic findings. Characteristics of GC cases detected in this program were analyzed retrospectively. Setting GC screening program with esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) in one private screening center. Participants A total of 8,989 participants underwent a GC screening program with EGD. Of these, 8,242 individuals were screening using the ABC method. Excluding 115 post-gastrectomy cases, 8127 individuals participated in this study. Main outcome measures Individuals were classified using the ABC method, consistent with the recommendation used by the Japan Research Foundation of Prevention Diagnosis Therapy for Gastric Cancer. EGD was used to search neoplasms and inspect the underlined gastric mucosa for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), which was evaluated using the Kimura-Takemoto classification system. Results Sixteen cases of GC were detected. Although seven of these were in group A, there was a high probability of previous exposure to Hp because of Hp-er Hx or CAG. All GC cases were also diagnosed as CAG and most were open type. Each GC lesion was located in the atrophic gastric mucosa. Conclusions The prevalence of GC in each group in the ABC method has altered because of the recent development of Hp-er. Individuals with Hp-er Hx or CAG have a material risk of developing GC and certainly require periodic GC screening. Identification and inspection of atrophic gastric mucosae via EGD is crucial for early detection of GC.
Objective To determine if higher adiponectin levels had any beneficial effects on atherosclerosis-related factors, a longitudinal study was conducted involving 77 subjects who underwent annual anti-aging health checks at Tokai University Tokyo Hospital. Methods The subjects were divided into four groups (Quartile 1, n = 18, adiponectin < 5.9 μg/mL; Quartile 2, n = 19, adiponectin 5.9 to <8.3 μg/mL; Quartile 3, n = 20, adiponectin 8.3 to <11.4 μg/mL; Quartile 4, n = 20, adiponectin >11.4 μg/mL). The relationship between basal adiponectin level and the following parameters was evaluated: BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, bilateral mean intima-media thickness (IMT) and lifestyle habits (exercise, smoking, drinking and supplement intake) and medical profile (present illness and past history) at baseline and after three years. Results Baseline adiponectin was significantly negatively correlated with baseline BMI, systolic/diastolic BP and triglycerides, and positively correlated with HDL-C. After three years, BMI, diastolic BP and triglycerides showed a significantly negative correlation, and HDL-C showed a significantly positive correlation with baseline adiponectin. The average adiponectin value was significantly elevated after three years in Quartile 4, the highest basal adiponectin group. Baseline HDL-C was higher in Quartile 4 than in the other groups, and significant elevation was observed in HDL-C in Quartile 4 after three years. The percentage of exercisers was significantly increased in the highest basal adiponectin group after three years. Conclusion Higher basal adiponectin led to further elevation of adiponectin and HDL-C after three years, through an increase in exercise behavior.
Objective This paper provides an overview of current research and debate about the definition and measurement of health literacy, and the use of different health education methods to improve health literacy in populations. Definition and measurement Health literacy describes a person’s ability to perform knowledge-based literacy tasks (understanding and using information) that are required to make health related decisions in a variety of different situations. These cognitive and social skills are content and context specific, and are greatly influenced by a person’s age and stage in life. In these circumstances, developing a “universal” population measure of health literacy has been very difficult. Improving health literacy Health literacy can be improved through education and can be regarded as a measurable outcome to health education. As with all forms of education, significant differences in educational methods, media and content will result in different learning outcomes. Improving health literacy involves both the transmission of health information, and support to develop confidence to act on that knowledge. This will best be achieved through more personal forms of communication, and through community based educational outreach. Conclusions Applying the concept of health literacy in this way will support more comprehensive options for health improvement, disease prevention and more successful disease self-management among individuals with established illness. However, these approaches are less well tested through systematic research than work in clinical settings and further research is needed to develop the empirical basis for the concept.
The goal of anti-aging medicine is to promote healthy daily living, improve quality of life (QOL), and thereby achieve healthy longevity. Anti-aging medicine is practiced by elucidating the mechanisms of aging and senescence through a multidisciplinary collaboration of science, determining the degree of aging through an anti-aging medical checkup, and identifying the best approach to achieve healthy longevity. Specific objectives include freeing more elderly people from the need of nursing care, preventing them from becoming bedridden or demented, and preventing cancer. People are exposed to various adverse lifestyle factors that may hamper healthy longevity and impair QOL, such as lack of exercise, obesity, poor dietary habit, stress, sleep problems and smoking. A better understanding of these factors is important for the implementation of life therapies, such as diet/exercise therapy and psychotherapy. The body is composed of various tissues, viscera and organs, which do not age uniformly. For people in their late 30s, age-related, pathological degenerative changes (weak points of aging) start to occur in some parts of the body, which may lead to diseases and negatively affect other healthy parts of the body. The best approach to healthy longevity is to promote uniform and balanced aging of the whole body. The degree of aging is assessed by determining muscle, vascular, neural, hormone and bone ages; the most aged part of the body will be identified as the primary focus of treatment, with the aim to achieve balanced aging of the whole body. In addition, among the risk factors for accelerated aging, such as immunological stress, oxidative stress, psychosomatic stress, glycative stress and poor lifestyle, the most significant factor will be determined and set as the primary target of treatment. The mode of aging varies among individuals. Medical care aimed at achieving healthy longevity should be provided for each patient according to a personalized anti-aging treatment plan based on the appropriate aging assessment.
In June 2006, Tokai University launched the Check-up System at the Tokyo Hospital with the aim of assessing age-related changes and various factors that influence their progression, and following up with medical intervention. Prior to launching this Anti-Aging Health Check-up System, we conducted a questionnaire survey of individuals who had received general health check-ups at our hospital. More than 90% of the respondents knew about anti-aging medicine and were interested in it. The tests carried out as part of our anti-aging health check-ups are broadly divided into those that indicate the present degree of aging and those that focus on factors that contribute to aging. Our Anti-Aging Health Check-up System includes more than 70 examination items and provides various unique services. As of March 2015, approximately 1,640 individuals had received the anti-aging health check-up, and 75.4% of these were repeat recipients. The average age is currently 63.7 years for males and 61.7 for females. The gender ratio is 54% male compared to 46% female. Of the total number of recipients, 57% also received a general health check-up at the same time. By age group, individuals in their 60s account for the largest proportion with one-third of the total, and more than 80% of all those tested are aged 50 to 70. Some individuals have finished their 9th check-up, and many of them have kept aging-related markers steady or actually improved them. The rationale of the Anti-Aging Health Check-up System, which assumes advancing age to be the biggest risk factor for disease and aims to identify signs and intervene at an early stage, is considered an appropriate step in the right direction in terms of primary prevention. However, it may not always be possible to clearly convey its importance due to its complex nature. To properly develop this aspect, it should always be based on evidence with the target of extending life expectancy; it should be judged objectively, without ignoring conflicting evidence, while sufficient information should be provided and options offered to those receiving the check-ups. In view of the super-aging society, we hope that this kind of health assessment and guidance method will take root and flourish.