The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of respiratory muscle strength motor functions, and to investigate whether the measurement of respiratory muscle strength is useful for evaluating motor functions during health checkups. Furthermore, regarding care prevention, a further purpose was to investigate whether respiratory muscle strength can be used as a risk factor to determine the conditions requiring long-term care. Methods The subjects were 206 females (range: 19-92 years) and 139 males (range: 19-89 years). Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength, body composition, and physical fitness were measured, and correlations were identified between respiratory muscle strength and various factors. To clarify the risk of falling, a questionnaire was distributed among the elderly subjects. Results A negative correlation was observed between maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax) and age (p<0.001). PImax and PEmax were positively correlated with vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and lean body mass (p<0.05-0.001). In addition, positive correlations were found between PImax and PEmax and grip strength, step test results, stepping, and time standing on one foot with eyes open (p<0.05-0.001). Elderly females with stumbling problems had significantly lower PImax and PEmax values than those without stumbling problems (p<0.01). Conclusions These results suggest a high correlation between respiratory muscle strength and physical fitness. Respiratory muscle strength is useful for evaluating various aspects of motor function. Thus, measurement of respiratory muscle strength during health checkups may be helpful for predicting the risk of deterioration, falling, and need for long-term nursing care.
Objectives Healthy lifestyle often prevents high blood pressure. To date three kinds of simple healthy lifestyle mottoes for everyone, proposed by Breslow' seven items, Morimoto's eight items, and Ikeda's six items have been reported. There was no report between the incidence of high blood pressure and practicing these health habits. The object of the present study is to determine which of the three classifications is most closely associated with the prevention of high blood pressure. Design The cumulative 9-year incidence high blood pressure was calculated and compared among groups using the log-rank test adjusted for age in the present open retrospective cohort study. Setting and Paticpants 5,884 subjects underwent medical checkup responded to a self-administered questionnaire of the above healthy lifestyle habits were divided into poor, moderate, and favorable lifestyle groups. Main outcome measure The high blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg, or treatment with anti-hypertensive agents during follow-up. Results For Breslow's habits, the incidence of high blood pressure was higher in the favorable group than in the poor and moderate groups for males. In Morimoto's habits, there were no significant differences of the incidence among three groups. For Ikeda's habits, the incidence of high blood pressure in the poor group was significantly higher than in the favorable and moderate groups for males, although the habits were not predictive for females. Conclusions We propose Ikeda's healthy habits for decreasing the risk of high blood pressure.
Background In the general population, it is well documented that body mass index (BMI) is negatively related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration. However, it is less clear whether the relationships between BMI and serum lipids and lipoproteins observed in the general population also apply to well-trained athletes. The purpose of this study was thus to examine the relationship of BMI with HDL-C in such individuals. Methods Thirty-four male rugby players and 31 male soccer players participated in the present study. These subjects were divided into 3 groups according to BMI: High, Middle, and Low Groups. Results The High Group showed significantly lower HDL-C, HDL2-C than the Middle and Low Groups. Also, the High Group showed significantly lower apolipoproteins (apo) A-I than the Low Group. In the multiple regression analyses, BMI was negatively correlated with HDL-C, HDL2-C, and apo A-I independent of other possible confounding factors. Conclusion These results suggest that BMI is associated with HDL-C, HDL2-C, and apo A-I in the male well-trained athletes.
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SHT) is defined as an asymptomatic state associated with normal serum FT4 and a slightly elevated serum TSH concentration. Patients with SHT have a high rate of progression to clinically overt hypothyroidism (OHT), and in addition, SHT is thought to be a risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to identify SHT patients and refer them to a thyroid specialist for treatment and management. We retrospectively studied 1168 subjects (324 males and 844 females) who received health check-ups including thyroid function tests in our Health Service Association Clinic over a period of three years and eleven months. Sixty subjects (5.1%) were diagnosed as SHT. The TSH/FT4 ratio (SHT index) was found to be helpful for diagnosing SHT. The main causes of SHT were Hashimoto's thyroiditis, excess dietary iodine intake. L-thyroxine replacement therapy was recommended for patients with a TSH greater than 10 μU/mL. For patients with very mild SHT who are pregnant or anticipate becoming pregnant, L-thyroxine therapy should be started. We devised a flowchart for the diagnosis and management of SHT.
Because of the therapeutic advance in the past 25 years, the incidence of viral hepatitis constituting the largest part of liver disease decreased rapidly, and the main target in the field of liver disease is now shifting from viral hepatitis to fatty liver. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs in patients without or with almost no history of alcohol intake. NAFLD is recognized as an expression type of metabolic syndrome in the liver and the patients of NAFLD are also increasing along with the increase of metabolic syndrome. Many of the NAFLD cases are detected by health checkup. However, there are some cases of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that develop liver cirrhosis and /or liver cancer of which the prognosis is poor. So, a follow-up observation and cooperation with specialists in different specialties are necessary in the situation of health checkup. We previously reported some research results about NAFLD/NASH. In this review, we present basic knowledge concerning disease concept, occurrence mechanism, diagnosis and treatment to make better performance at the health evaluation and promotion.
Nutritional status is the balance between intake and expenditure, the assessment of which is highly complex and individualized. Dietary supplements can be beneficial for covering the shortcomings of some people’s diets, but must not be used to replace the balanced variety of foods necessary for a healthy diet. In Japan, the term “supplement” is used without a clear legal definition. Many supplements contain active ingredients that may have strong and unpredictable detrimental biological effects on the human body. Some dangerous products may carry illegal health claims or contain pharmaceutical ingredients with a high risk of adverse effects. When using dietary supplements, it is important to consider their necessity and efficacy, and to obtain the advice of health-care professionals who have sufficient knowledge about nutrition. Our anti-aging health check-up provides personal nutrition advice based on serum vitamin levels and detailed information about dietary habits. To help people make informed decisions, the doctors and dietitians work together to decide how people can achieve a balance between the foods and nutrients they personally need. We do not always find that people need supplements, and sometimes we find those who use supplements inappropriately. This article presents a current overview of dietary supplements in Japan and our approach to providing supplement advice in our anti-aging health check-up system, and gives a helpful perspective in evaluating and promoting good health.