This study describes a reformation process of verbal behavior of an aphasic (female, 37 years old) . The results are as follows: 1. The patients, who could not have learned the naming behavior by auditory reinforcement alone, could more easily reform a few naming behaviors with some intervention processes of identification by“motor-activities”. 2. The patient's reformation ability in a few naming behaviors can be attributed to the training (learning), on the ground that she had attacked by the desease two years before and that the time passage seems to be ample to deny the possibility of her natural recovery. 3. Some discussions were made concerning the methods of naming behavior training for aphasics.
The ratio of the vital capacity to the maximum phonation time (Phonation Quotient; P. Q.) and the ratio of the maximum expiration time to the maximum phonation time (Expiratory Expenditure Index; E. E. I.) have often been used for clinical evaluation of vocal function or the efficiency of the larynx on phonation. Although the ranges of P. Q. and E. E. I. in normal adults have already been reported by previous investigators, those values in normal children are hardly available in the literatures. The present authors attempted to measure the vital capacity, the maximum pho-nation time and the maximum expiration time in 1075 normal children in primary and junior high schools in Osaka city, from which P.Q. and E.E.I. were obtained. For each age group, the standard values of P. Q. and E. E. I. were calculated by the regression analysis, while the upper limits were given by antilogarithmic transformation (90% quantile) . The results were summarized as follows; 1) In general, P. Q. and E.E.I. in children are markedly lower than those in adults, though the differences become lesser when the age of children increases. 2) The standard value of P. Q. appears roughly comparative to the height (cm) of children in respective age range, while that of E. E. I. to 1/20 of the body weight (Kg.) .
Eye movement tests, such as the optokinetic pattern test (OKP test), the eye tracking test (ET test) and“the verbal voluntary eye movement test (VVEM test) ” were administrated to aphasia patients. An attempt was made to investigate a possible relationship between the eye movement test results and the location of lesions in the cerebral hemisphere as well as functional neurological disturbances extending to the brain stem. Six patients, including four with motor aphasia and two with sensory aphasia, were examined in this study. The results obtained were as follows: 1) Asymmetric optokinetic patterns with directional preponderance towards the side of the cerebral lesion were demonstrated by the OKP test in five of the six patients. 2) The quick component of the optokinetic nystagmus was markedly defective at an early stage of the disease in five patients and recovered during a period from three to twelve months in four of the five patients. 3) Marked saccadic eye movements were revealed by the ET test in a patient with motor aphasia caused by head trauma. This finding suggested that in the patient there might be some disturbances at the level of the brain stem in addition to the cerebral lesion. 4) Difficulties in moving the eyes in response to the verbal commands were observed by using the VVEM test in four patients with motor or sensory aphasia. The difficulty observed in the patients with sensory aphasia was found to be due to that in understanding the verbal stimuli, while the impaired verbal voluntary eye movements noted in the patients with motor aphasia were attributed to both the disability to understand the spoken words and apraxia of the eye movement.