A newly developed method for direct measurement of sub-glottal pressure is described. The technique involves employment of a miniaturized solid-state pressure transducer which is inserted into the sub-glottal space via the glottis. The minute size and wide frequency response of this series of transducers provides a new approach to the study of the rapid air-pressure variations inside the vocal mechanism. Advantages of this procedure are discussed in comparison with other methods of measuring the sub-glottal pressure, such as those that employ an esophageal baloon, a thin catheter through the glottis, or a tracheal puncture. Some qualitative data, including the sub-glottal plessure wave recorded simultaneously with the supra-glottal pressure wave, or with the high speed motion picture of the larynx, are presented and debated. Limitations of the technique are considered together with the technical modification of the equipment needed for speech research.
In the present report, a newly developed method for direct measurement of subglottal pressure is described, which is consisted of a fiberoptic catheter with both inlet and outlet glass fibers and an optical reflector. In addition, subglottal pressure and a wave form of the sound produced in an isolated canine larynx were analysed on the basis of Lissajous' figure. In the case of normal vocal cords, a distortion in the Lissajous' figure of the sound wave and subglottal pressure is observed according to augmentation of the air flow. However, the sound intensity is gradually increased in proportion to augmentation of the air flow. No phase shift between the sound wave and vibratory variation of subglottal pressure is observed. In the case of abnormal vocal cards, higher stiffness of membranous portion of the vocal cord results in increase of phase difference between the sound wave and vibratory variation of subglottal pressure. No increase of sound intensity is observed even when high volume of air flow is employed for sound production. These analyses mentioned above are very easily obtained by use of Lissajous' figure method.
Subglottal pressure during phonation is varied with the opening and closing of the glottis. This fine wavy variation accompanied by the glottal vibration is termed as subglottal pressure variation. A miniature transducer was inserted into subglottal region, and subglottal pressure variation as well as mean subglottal air pressure (DC component) was recorded. This study was carried out in order to observe pattern variation caused by changes in vocal intensity and/or pitch. The dimensional size of the miniature transducer was 3.0×3.0×1.0 mm. The wave form of subglottal pressure variation was triangular, having a flat section between each wave. In the case of normal speech range, higher pitches of the voice resulted in shortening or finally disappearance of the flat section. However, no disappearance of the flat section was obtained when the vocal intensity was increased. It was evident that theses modes of subglottal pressure variation mentioned above was influenced by the changes in vocal vibratory pattern during phonation.
In an attempt to construct a short predictive test of articulation, the data obtained on 147 subjects aged 4 through 6 with misarticulation were analyzed. The subjects were those who were tested twice at an interval of two years with the comprehensive test which was specially composed for this purpose. The test consists of 509 items in 8 subtests (four articulation tests, two auditory tests, and two other tests) . The test scores of the 509 items were arranged into 45 composite scores. Correlation coefficients were computed between the articulation score (represented by word articulation test-voluntary) of the 2-year-later test, and each of 45 composite scores of the first test. Twentysix composit a scores were selected at a 1% level of significance, as ones which showed higher predictive value or correlation coefficient. Using the articulation score and 26 composite scores, a multiple correlation coefficient was computed (R=0.67), and a multiple regression equation was derived. Applying the equation to each subjest using the 26 composite scores of the first test, 147 predictive articulation scores were obtained. The predictive rate was 74.8% of observed score of the two-year-later test.
A retrospective investigation was made on the recovery processes of three adult aphasic patients with “Gerstmann Syndrome” and other neuropsychological deficits. The period of study covered in each case was 18 months starting from one to two months post onset of illness. The major findings can be summarized as follows; 1. At the initial examination, the nature and severity of the four Gerstmann deficits (an aggregate of finger agnosia, right-left disorientation, agraphia and acalculia) varied from case to case. In addition, some other neuropsychological deficits (such as constructional apraxia, spatial disorientation and/or impairment of topographical memory and time orientation) were found in each case. 2. The prognosis of the four Gerstmann deficits differed from patient to patient. In one patient the recovery process was so good as to obtain the premorbid level, whereas in the others a fair improvement was made in finger localization, writing and calculation, but not in right-left discrimination. 3. The sites of the brain lesions confirmed by the CT scan in the three patients varied widely, i. e., bilateral and left parietal with ventricular dilatation in the first patient, left parietal in the second, and right frontal subcortical with lesion of the putamen in the third who was left handed. On the basis of these findings, it was tentatively concluded that no specific neuropsycho-logical significance could be attached to the grouping of the four Gerstmann deficits.