Homogeneous nucleation theories are discussed from the standpoint of“user”, namely not specialist of the theories but a scientist who applies them in other fields. Tanabe et al. (1986) have tried to investigate condensation of molecules in the laboratory, as a simulation of the formation of dust grains in space. However, they could not apply homogeneous nucleation theories. To answer a question“why they (we) could not?”is the theme of this short note.
The earth is a rotating magnetized emitter of coherent radio bursts called the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR); the phenomena have a common characteristics with Jupiter and pulsars. The origin of AKR has long been understood as the results of the cyclotron maser mechanisms that are only possible in the very tenuous plasma cavity with fp/fc (fp and fc are respectively plasma and electron cyclotron frequencies) value less than 0.1. Furthermore, the cyclotron maser mechanism requires only the trapped component of the energetic particles with loss cone velocity distributions. Contrary to this cyclotron maser mechanisms, generation of the plasma waves by the inverse Landau mechanism of the upper hybrid mode waves in the frequency range fc<fe<(fc2+fp2)1/2, for the emission frequency fe and conversion of this plasma waves to the escape mode of the electromagnetic waves have been proposed in this paper. The evidences of large fp/fc value (fp/fc>0.3) and the emissions associated with 2nd harmonics of fUHR (fUHR=(fc2+fp2)1/2) discovered by the EXOS-D satellite observations support the origin at the upper hybrid mode wave branch and the conversion of that wave into AKR. The informations on the polarizations of AKR detected by the EXOS-D satellite data show clear consistency with the polarization features predicted by the plasma wave conversion theory.
Quartz pseudomorphs after coesite were discovered in garnet from a pelitic garnet-chloritoid-talc schist. The pseudomorphs accompany radial cracks developed from them. A metamorphic condition of low temperature (<600°C) and very high pressure (>2.4GPa) is estimated from the mineral assemblage and mineral compositions. Sedimentary rocks were brought to the depth of about 80km or more by subduction of oceanic lithosphere or by collision of two continents.
According to the sequence of cloned genomic DNA of clover proliferation (CP) MLO, two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer pairs were synthesized to specifically amplify two CP MLO DNA fragments from crude nucleic acids containing CP MLO DNA and host plant DNA. The first primer pair guided the amplification of a 196-bp DNA fragment of CP MLO. The second primer pair directed the amplification of a 109-bp DNA fragment of CP MLO. PCR products were identified by liquid hybridization using 5' end-labeled sequence-specific internal probe followed by 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing of PCR products. A minimum of 2.5ng nucleic acids were needed to detect CP MLO when PCR was not applied, whereas a minimum of only 2.5×10-5ng nucleic acids were needed when the 109-bp CP MLO DNA fragment was amplified by PCR, and a minimum of 2.5×10-8ng nucleic acids were needed to detect CP MLO when the 196-bp CP MLO DNA fragment was amplified through PCR. No DNA fragments were amplified when nucleic acids from healthy periwinkle plants were used as PCR templates.
With the aid of the antibodies raised against synthetic peptides corresponding to the sequences of human dystrophin, 440-489 and 3495-3544, respectively, dystrophin was isolated from porcine skeletal muscle as a homogeneous protein of about 400kDa. Main steps of preparation consisted of extraction with weakly alkaline Triton X-100 solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) fractionation, gel filtration, cationic chromatography and preparative SDS gel electrophoresis. BrCN treatment of purified dystrophin gave rise to 40kDa and 10kDa fractions. Partial sequencing of the 40kDa fraction revealed that porcine dystrophin was more homologous with human dystrophin than was chicken dystrophin. The 10kDa fraction reacted strongly with the antibody against the peptide 3495-3544, but not to that against the peptide 440-489, and the sequences of its several parts examined were all identical with those of corresponding parts of human dystrophin, respectively.
The effects of long exposure of the frog sciatic nerve to a large static magnetic field (0.7T) was investigated. The amplitude or conduction velocity of nerve activity was hardly affected by long exposure to large static magnetic field. However, the recovery curve of nerve activity was larger for the nerve exposed to the large magnetic field.