The lead isotope ratios of the white glazes of pottery sherds excavated at an archaeological site of the 9th century, A'Ali in Bahrain on the coast of the Persian Gulf were measured by mass spectroscopy to find their provenances. The lead isotope ratios agreed with those of the Iranian lead ores and archaeological objects, indicating the Iranian origin of these pottery sherds.
In order to study the correlation between the highly resistive property against corrosion and the production method of the ancient iron artifacts, it is essentially necessary to determine the accurate ages of them. 14C dating with accelerator mass spectrometry was applied to the two ancient artifacts, a Japanese sword of wroughtiron with a production age ranged from the Kamakura to the Muromachi period, estimation based on the fabrication technique, and a planing adze of cast iron with no definite origin. The former was dated as 880±150 y.B.P., corresponding to the calendar age ranged from AD 1021 to AD 1263, and the latter as 1720±160 y.B.P. with the calendar age ranged from AD 119 to AD 457 and from AD 483 to AD 508. These calibrated 14C ages for both iron artifacts are consistent with the relevant ages conjectured by historical considerations.
Boletus hiratsukae, sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Japan. It belongs to section Boletus and is characterized by the fuliginous to dark brown color of both the pileus and stipe, a dry, pruinose-subvelutinous pileus without any rugosity throughout its development, and by a palisade trichodermium structure of the pileipellis in which the element hyphae are often submoniliform with shortened, more or less inflated, terminal and subterminal cells. Data on the habitat suggest that it may form mycorrhizal associations with members of Pinaceae, especially Abies and Pinus.