Various kinds of geophysical data are steadily increasing around the Antarctic Continent. However, increase rate is not so high due to severe environmental conditions such as bad sea state. Especially, heat flow data are one of the most lacking geophysical parameters. Concerning heat flow measurements in the southern ocean, contribution of Japanese R/V Hakurei is substantial. During the past two decades, R/V Hakurei has made circum Antarctic research cruises. In this paper, we summarize R/V Hakurei's heat flow data and the general feature of heat flow distribution around the Antarctica.
A statement of split sea in the Izmit Gulf, where the North Anatolian Fault is extending, was obtained from a witness fisherman when we collected retrospective statements about unusual phenomena before the Izmit earthquake in 1999. The split sea and walls of seawater on both sides of his boat, which we name the Moses' phenomenon after the Exodus, were ascribed to larger outflow of seawater out of the fault zone before and at the time of faulting than the inflow from outside sea. The water removal by preseismic dilatancy at large areas and by fissures and breccia at the fault zone in addition to the horizontal outflow due to subsidence of the land and sea floors overwhelmed the horizontal inflow from both sides of the zone; the inflow would be blocked in a narrow and shallow channel at the Cape Gölcük. The split water has hydrodynamically been calculated assuming“an open channel hydraulic water flow”and reproduced experimentally in an aquarium model. The tidal withdrawal and appearance of the sea floor as reported for the great Kanto earthquake in 1923 may also be explained for a bay cut by a fault line and limited inflow of seawater blocked by submarine sand dunes.
Cancer is a heritable disorder of somatic cells. The environment and heredity both operate in the origin of human cancer. Hereditary cancers in animals provide valuable experimental models for understanding the mechanisms of disease, and the development of the therapeutic treatments which can be translated into human patients, as well as how environmental factors interact with cancer susceptibility genes. Here, we show the example for cancer prevention in Tsc2 gene mutant hereditary renal carcinogenesis by introducing IFN-y transgene.
To cast experimental light on epidemiological findings regarding adverse effects of β-carotene on human lung neoplasia, rats were administered three carcinogens, diethylnitrosamine (DEN), dihydroxy-di-N-propylnitrosamine (DHPN) and azoxymethane (AOM), within a four week period, for induction of tumors primarily in the liver, lung, colon and kidney (Multi-organ carcinogenesis model), thereafter received vehicle supplementation with lycopene (0.05, 0.01 or 0.005%), β-carotene (0.05, 0.01%), or palm carotene, a mixture of β-carotene (60%) and α-carotene (30%), (0.05, 0.01%) for 40weeks. At the final sacrifice, the number of liver glutathione S-transferase positive lesion, a marker for neoplastic lesions, was significantly reduced by the lycopene at 0.01%, whereas lung tumor area was increased by lycopene (at 0.05 or 0.005%) and β-carotene (0.05%). No influence on lesions of colon and kidney were apparent. The results thus point to organ specific effects of the carotenoids tested in an animal model and the detrimental impact on lung carcinogenesis possibly mirroring reports observed in man. Our results suggests that a more coordinated approach to the influence of chemopreventive agents is necessary, with analysis of mechanisms in animal models as an essential component, before trials are commenced in future.