Using a powerful supersonic wave with high energy density, a violent imploding“sono-bubble”can be produced. Concentrating this energy, an ultra high energy density zone will occur inside the bubble. When these bubbles generated within the D2O-liquid collide with any solid, an enormous implantation of deuteriums come into the solid as a“sonoplasma-cluster”of high energy density deuterons. This event should be called“sono-implantation”, and when it is strongly generated an intense“latticequake”generates locally within a host-lattice and a highly deuterzed solid can be easily made in an extremely short period. Moreover it provides an effective means to generate dense“solid-state plasma”with high energy density of deuterons within a host-solid, and it will enables introducing even“solid-state plasma fusion”under the intense“latticequake”.
Adaptability to light conditions was examined for seedlings of three species of Dipterocarpaceae, Shorea leprosula, S. ovalis and Dryobalanops lanceolata, possessing different ecological and silvicultural properties. S. leprosula and S. ovalis showed significant morphological adaptations to weak light conditions by changing leaf weight ratio, root weight ratio and leaf areal weight, as compared with D. lanceolata which is the most shade tolerant among the three species. When the shade-adapted leaves of each species were released from shading, they showed depression in photosynthetic activity, though the extent of depression differed with species. Only S. leprosula showed a recovery in photosynthetic rate 18 days after the release from shading. This result indicates that S. leprosula was more adaptable to increase in light intensity than the other two species. S. leprosula could be regarded as one of the adaptable species for reforestation in degraded open land.
The effects of methylating adenine bases at the N6H2 groups on the thermal denaturation of the oligomer DNA duplexes were analyzed. Methylation of four adenine bases in a decamer DNA duplex decreased the melting temperature, Tm, by 9.4 degrees. Methylation of two adenine bases each in various dodecamer DNA duplexes decreased Tm by approximately 4 degrees. These effects correspond to destabilization of the duplexes by 0.6±0.1Kcal/mol per each methylation, and were essentially indepent of the length, the nucleotide sequence, and the number and positions of the methylated adenine bases incorporated. A possible biological function for methylation of adenine bases in destabilizing genomic DNA duplexes for the initiation of the DNA replication is discussed.