In order to examine the necessary condition to induce an intense“deuterium-reaction”within solids under the same electrolyte (D2O) and electrolytic current, both [DS-D2O] cell and [Bulk-D2O] cell having the same size“cathode”were electrically connected in series as a [Double-cell] to duplicate the experimental condition. The [DS-D2O] cell was constructed with a“DS-cathode”(Double Structure Cathode with an inner cathode of fine powders) and the [Bulk-D2O] cell with a“Bulk-cathode”made of bulk solid. Both intense“excess-energy”and“helium”are induced as a reaction product in [DS-D2O] cell, but it becomes very difficult in [Bulk-D2O] cell.
In order to examine whether possible conditions to induce“excess-energy”really exist or not in [DS-H2O] cell with the“DS-cathode”in H2O-electrolyte, both [DS-H2O] cell and [DS-D2O] cell having the same“DS-cathodes”, are electrically connected in series as a [Double-cell] and examined under identical experimental conditions. As a result, [DS-H2O] cell also generates“excess-energy”, but only under the extremely limited conditions when compared to the tremendous“excess-energy”generated by [DS-D2O]cell.
The identification of open reading frames (ORFs) by using the DNA sequence of a whole genome involves a statistical process to separate candidates-i.e. sections that start with formal start colons and end with formal termination colons, into two groups, authentic ORFs and artifacts. A small number of genes known prior to the study can be used for the analysis of general informatical characteristics that are expected to be shared by all the ORFs present in the genome. The results can be summarized into the form of scoring systems that measure the relatedness of each candidate to the model ORE In order to identify the complete set of ORFs the rate of false negative identification needs to be minimized, so that no important ORE is missed. A number of non-ORE sections can be analyzed by the same systems in order to estimate the rate of false positive identification. This rate can be systematically reduced by combining multiple scoring systems that evaluate different ORE-specific characteristics.
Characteristic properties of signaling processes are studied by a single cell model in the intercellular transport. The diffusion equation is solved for molecules secreted from a spherical cell under the boundary conditions of prescribed fluxes at the cell surface. The solution is physicochemically compared with another one corresponding to constant source at the cell surface by Francis and Palsson. 1) Discussion is given on communication distances (-50μm) estimated for human cytokines.