Understandings of turbulent plasma have been developed along with nuclear fusion research for more than a half century. Long international research has produced discoveries concerning turbulent plasma that allow us to notice the hidden nature and physics questions that could contribute to other scientific fields and the development of technologies. Guiding concepts have been established up to now that stimulate investigations on turbulent plasma. Research based on concepts concerning symmetry breaking and global linkage requires observing the entire field of plasma turbulence for an ultimate understanding of plasma. This article reviews the achievements as well as contemporary problems regarding turbulence experiments associated with strongly magnetized plasmas in the last and present century, and introduces forthcoming experimental issues, including new diagnostics and physics-oriented devices related to plasma turbulence.
Ubiquitination is a reversible post-translational modification in which ubiquitin chains are conjugated to target proteins to modulate protein function. The type of ubiquitin chain determines the mode of protein regulation. It has been shown that ubiquitin chains are formed via one of seven Lys residues in ubiquitin, and several types of ubiquitin chains are found in cells. We identified a new type of linear ubiquitin chain linked through the N-terminal Met of ubiquitin and assembled by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which is specific for linear chains. The discovery of linear ubiquitin chains and LUBAC is considered as a paradigm shift in ubiquitin research because linear ubiquitination is exclusive to animals, despite the existence of ubiquitination throughout eukaryotic kingdoms. Linear ubiquitination plays a critical role in immune signaling and cell death regulation. Dysregulation of LUBAC-mediated linear ubiquitination underlies various human diseases, including autoinflammation, autoimmunity, infection, and malignant tumors. This review summarizes the current status of linear ubiquitination research.
One of the ultimate goals of population genetics is to theoretically describe the behavior of allele frequency. Diffusion theory has been commonly used for this purpose mainly in one-locus one-population models, although it is not easy to handle diffusion theory in models with multiple loci or with multiple populations. This review introduces several successful cases, where multi-dimensional diffusion equations contributed to addressing evolutionary questions, thereby demonstrating its strong potential in population genetics.