At the lightning, a strong magnetic field is induced around the path of the pulse current between the cloud and the ground. We investigated the remanent magnetization of the soil and ground material most likely acquired under this magnetic field. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating remanent magnetizations were found, which are believed to be corresponding to the positive and negative polarities of lightning current. The remanent magnetization can be a fossil of lightning current preserved in the ground, so that we can study the underground path of the lightning current through the remanent magnetization.
Usu volcano has erupted eight times since 1663. The last four eruptions took place in the 20th century, and were monitored using standard instruments. Only the 1944 eruption produced a lava dome with a mound. However, growth of the lava dome and the mound beneath have not been discussed quantitatively because direct data of the dome formation were not obtained. During the early period of the 1944 eruption, T. Minakami repeated precise levels along the road traversing the eastern foot of Usu volcano which had grown to a part of the new dome (Showa-shinzan). The surveying period covered the stages of precursory upheaval, mound upheaval, explosions, and finally, lava dome extrusion. Though the surveying route grazed the upheaving mound, the results of the precise levels prove to be extremely useful in deriving a pseudo growth curve for the mound and the lava dome. The growth curves afford us important information on ground upheavals and lava dome extrusions. Such knowledge can not be obtained by model experiments or theoretical simulations.
We described the existence of the similarity of the secondary structure in hepatitis B virus (HBV) packaging signal ε and in hepatitis C virus (HCV) 3'X tail, both of which are considered to be important for the viral replication cycle. Seven nucleotide (nt) sequence (5'-GGUGGCU-3') existed both in HBV ε nt 3169-3175 and HCV 3'X tail nt 1'-7'. Furthermore, the 7-nt sequence paired with the 6-nt sequence (5'-AGCCUC-3') of HBV ε(nt 3149-3154) and (5'-AGCCCU-3') of HCV 3'X tail (nt 15'-20'), to form the very similar secondary structure with one unpaired U. We consider the possibility that the common biological characters shared by these viruses are derived from the recognition of this conserved secondary structure by the viral or cellular proteins.
A member of the cyclic hexadepsipeptide family, PD124, 966, isolated from a fermentation product of an actinomycete, inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (Parg) with IC50 of 40μg/ml. A novel cyclic peptide, pargamicin, isolated from a fermentation broth of Amicolatopsis sp., also inhibited Parg with IC50 of 28μg/ml. A linear peptide containing piperazic acid residues, piperastatin A, isolated from Streptomyces lavendofoliae, did not inhibit Parg activity.