The synchronous machine has a long history of development, analysis and usage. Now almost all large generators are synchronous generators, which are synonymous with AC generators. They have generally saliency of magnetic poles, which makes machine inductances timely variant and makes their analyses complicated and difficult. The conventional theories have not provided adequate analytical results of the machine and they still leave the machine analysis somewhat in confusion. The spiral vector method, which has been proposed by the author, will be applied in this paper to analysis of transient phenomena of the machine. It was reported in the recent proceedings.3) But this time the new idea of “damped inductance” will be introduced to further the SV theory of the synchronous machine.
Toxic effects of glufosinate ammonium (GLA), a non-selective herbicide, on the brain of infantile rats was studied. Because of the structural analogy between GLA and glutamate, GLA-exposed rats were examined for the wet-dog shakes response to kainic acid. Seven-day-old female rats were injected subcutaneously with a dose 1, 2 or 5mg/kg GLA daily for 7 days. They were weaned at 3 weeks of age and tested for the response to 9mg/kg kainic acid at 5 or 6 weeks of age. The frequency of wet-dog shakes induced by kainic acid showed a significant decrease in all GLA-exposed rats, though there was no significant difference among three dose groups. A significant decrease in the body weight gain was found in the 5mg/kg GLA group. The results suggest that exposure to GLA, even in low doses, during infantile period in the rat induces alterations in the kainic acid receptor in the brain.
A small protein model that consists of no more than the functional sites of trypsin1) is designed to detect the active sites and also to evaluate our hypothesis; a folding process derived from the DEV analysis is followed by the biochemical process. In the course of study, every non-polar amino acid in the model is replaced by glycine, whereupon the biochemical characteristics of polar amino acids should become more distinguished. The DEV analyses of the models select four amino acids (H, D, S and C) as the essential members of the functional system. The first three amino acids are coincide with the active sites of trypsin (40-H, 84-D and 177-S). When the area of triangle made up of a combination of three amino acids out of the above four is measured, the triangle of HDS is found to be the minimum among those made of other combinations investigated, suggesting that they are closely located each other. By taking advantage of the results, we propose a way how to identify the active sites in a protein.
Necrotic and apoptotic changes have been rather conceptually defined, and have shown varying morphological and biochemical features depending on signaling pathways and cell lineages. In an attempt to investigate apoptotic and necrotic signals, we constructed a chimeric gene encoding an extracellular human Fas and intracytoplasmic human TNFR-1 (TNF receptor p55) and introduced it into murine NIH/3T3 cells for their heterotopic expression. Upon stimulation with an agonistic anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody those NIH/3T3 cell clones with the chimeric receptor showed cytopathic changes quite similar to those with the wild type Fas, although both receptors possess 'death' domains with different binding proteins. In this forced induction of death of the fibroblastic cells, we found thus that: 1) Fas signal induced complete cell death, 2) cytopathic changes in both NIH/3T3 derivatives were quite similar with irregular nuclear fragmentation and less distinct DNA fragmentation, and 3) intracytoplasmic domains were interchangeable between Fas and TNFR-1. This system may contribute to further analyses of the cell death mechanisms, including downstream Fas/TNFR-1 signaling.