We propose, by numerical calculation, a possibility of microwave localization to produce a plasma fireball in the experiment of 2.45GHz microwave interference. Calculation shows that in one-dimensional system, a few hundred times of intensification of localized microwave could be obtained. The relationship between the position of a plasma fireball production and the intensity of localized microwave is discussed.
Observations were made of the abundant production of gaseous 4He inside a double-structure Pd cathode (“DS-cathode”) which continuously had released excess heat of about 5-10W over 2, 000 hrs in the electrolysis of D2O. These 4He atoms were found from the inner atmosphere within the DS-cathode included the highly deuterated Pd fine powders.
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and multilayers of helical peptides were prepared and the surface potentials of the peptide layers were measured to evaluate the contribution of the dipole moment of helical peptides to the surface potential. All the peptides have 2-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), and adopt helical conformation in the peptide layers. The peptides were immobilized on gold surface by Au+-S- bond or hydrogen bonds to take a vertical orientation to the surface. When the helical peptides were connected to gold surface through the N terminal, the surface potentials were negative. On the other hand, the helical peptide layers exhibited positive surface potentials, when the peptides were connected through the C terminal. These results indicate that the dipole moment of helical peptide is the major factor for generation of the surface potential. The generation of surface potential by the helical peptides was also discussed in terms of a theoretical point of view.
A general algorithm to obtain the free energy values at various molecular states was developed. The effectiveness of the algorithm was shown by the application to reveal the free energy landscape of the cis-trans imide isomerization of a peptide dimer, -Ala-Pro-, by performing the multicanonical molecular dynamics simulations and the ab initio molecular orbital calculations. Because of the generality of the current algorithm, many different kinds of applications are available for analyses of the free energies of biological molecules in the activated states.
Eight acute leukemia patients were treated with BCG-cell wall skeleton (CWS) alone after the first complete remission (CR) induction with chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Two patients, who achieved CR after one course of chemotherapy, were treated with BCG-CWS alone for about 8 years, one starting just after the first relapse and the other just after the first remission. They have been in CR state for more than two decades, without further relapse or other secondary cancers. Recently, their complete cure was confirmed; Wilms tumor (WT)-1 gene expression in their peripheral blood was less than 10-5. Among other 6 patients, who had repeated or intensive chemotherapy, 4 patients responded to immunotherapy with BCG-CWS alone are alive in CR for more than 1 year, but two died shortly thereafter. The most important factor influencing the above patients' fate might be their own immunity at the start of immunotherapy; this can be monitored with the interferon (IFN)-γ induction test. In view of above results, immunotherapy with BCG-CWS alone for acute leukemia patients should be used just after the first CR and before transplantation, because of its priority in such terms as simple procedure, high cost-performance, high quality of life, easy availability and no risk of tuberculosis.
A modified differential display method was used to compare patterns of mRNA expression between human fetal and adult brains and we obtained 26 candidates for highly expressed fetal cDNA fragments. A clone, A31, was picked up, which had no significant homology in sequence compared with the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. A31 mRNA was shown to be expressed only in fetal brain by RT-PCR and Northern blotting. The Northern analysis revealed that the mRNA was about 9kb and highly expressed in middle stage of human brain, and that it was absent in various tissues except brain. Further characterization of this clone was performed by in situ hybridization, which showed that the mRNA was mostly expressed in cell bodies and dendrites of neurons in cortical plates. Our analyses suggest that this mRNA is involved in dendritic development at the middle stage in human fetal brain and that the mRNA is partially transported from cell bodies to dendrites where the protein is synthesized.
A large amount of tropomyosin was quickly prepared from scallop striated muscle by the method combining ammonium sulfate fractionation in the presence of Mg2+-ATP and subsequent dialysis. The yield of tropomyosin by this method was about four times higher than that by conventional method. The tropomyosin thus prepared showed essentially the same activity as ordinary preparation, e.g., it depressed the Mg2+-ATPase activity of rabbit skeletal actomyosin by 25%, whereas no effect on that of recom stituted scallop actomyosin was observed. This new method for preparing tropomyosin characterized by its simplicity and rapidity is expected to be applicable to different kinds of muscle.
A new method is described for printing nucleotide sequences by assembling square microcells, representing nucleotides, into blocks, and by differentiating micro-cells following a color code, a gray scale, etc., corresponding to the four types of nucleotides. By printing micro-cells, whose sides are close to 250μm, using a laser printer, the complete sequence of a genome of the size close to 1M bases can be printed in the space of full size of A4, without loosing any original information. By enlarging the print using a magnifying glass or a photo-copy machine, the original sequence can be reconstituted, visually or mechanically. Overall and regional characteristics of genomes (e.g. distribution of gene-coding regions) can be analyzed using a plot of this type. The scheme for classifying micro-cells can be modified, in order to present different types of information such as distribution of purines and pyrimidines or that of different types of dinucleotide combinations through the genome.