Vertical fine structures of temperature and water vapor in the troposphere were detected from radiosonde data between 1 and 8km MSL. It was found that fluctuations of temperature and specific humidity have a negative correlation in most of the vertical soundings examined. Their mean thickness is about 300m. The mean amplitudes of fluctuations are 0.4K for temperature and 0.4gkg-1 for specific humidity.
Evaporation mechanism of synthetic pure forsterite and natural iron-bearing forsterite was experimentally studied in vacuum in the temperature range of 1400-1800°C. Forsterite, which is one of the most important minerals in the planetary system, shows anisotropy of evaporation regarding evaporation rates and surface microstructures. The surfaces develop evaporation pits emanating from dislocation outcrops and smooth or stepped evaporation surface of which evaporation is not enhanced by dislocations. The shape of pits is controlled by anisotropy in evaporation rate and/or that in the surface free energy. Although forsterite and iron-bearing olivine have different type, orientation, and density of dislocation, the characteristics of evaporation pits are common for three crystallographically oriented surfaces. It suggests the larger contribution of anisotropy of surface free energy than the stress energy of dislocations on the shape of the evaporation pits. The estimated evaporation rates, on the contrary, indicate the importance of dislocation, which changes the overall evaporation rate by several factors at the experimental temperature. The change of evaporation rate affects the estimation of timescale of chemical fractionation in the solar nebula.
Novel characteristics of genes identified in the genome of a hyper-thermophilic archaebacterium, Pyrococcus sp. OT3, are described by correlating the 1.74M bases in the circular genome to the 12 hours in a clock. From 0:00 to 7:00 the bases are used to code more for the genes whose transcription takes place in the clockwise direction, while from 7:00 to 12:00 to code more for the genes whose transcription takes place in the anti-clockwise direction. Genes that are closely related to known eubacterial genes distribute equally through the genome without showing any strong position-preference. In contrast, genes that are closely related to known eukaryotic genes have tendency to cluster from 1:30 to 3:30. On the basis of these findings a possible link between transcription and replication and the origin of archaebacterial genomes are discussed.