Solar insolation variation due to the gravitational perturbation among the planetary bodies in the solar system, so called the Milankovitch cycle, is widely believed as a major cause of the climatic change such as the glacial-interglacial cycles in Quaternary, and its typical frequencies are supposed to be constant during Quaternary. However, the periods of these cycles must have been largely changed following to the dynamical evolution of the earth-moon system. We have studied the relation between the frequencies of the Milankovitch cycles and the rotation rate of the earth on the basis of theoretical and computational analysis of the earth-moon system. Our conclusion is that this cyclicity which can be recorded in the sediments are mutually related well as a function of the dynamical ellipticity and the absolute age. This fact implies that we can establish the standard time scale for measuring the relative age, in other words, the lap time clock or the chronometer for decoding the whole history of the earth, by comparing the stripes in BIF and other sediments of Archean or Proterozoic with a set of theoretical Milankovitch cycle and tidal cycle frequencies.
Conventional electric circuit theories make use of two different expressions of state variables. Phasor or vector expression is used for steady state analysis and real value expression is used for transient state analysis. Due to the different expressions steady state and transient state solutions are not compatible and it causes inconvenience and awkwardness in analysis and computer simulation. The spiral vector method proposed in this paper, which makes use of exponential time function for expressing state variables, can treat electric circuit analysis in an unified way and opens up a new area of the unified circuit theory. The spiral vector method is a very powerful tool for analysis and control of AC machines also.1)-4)
Using an improved particle gun driven by compressed nitrogen gas (20kg/cm2 pressure), embryos of oat (Avena sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) or primary leaves of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) were bombarded with gold particles coated with the vector DNA, pBI121, or genomic transcript RNAs of sweet clover necrotic mosaic virus (SCNMV). GUS gene expression in the oat seedlings was detected in the apical meristems of the primary and emerging lateral roots, and in the root hairs, procambium, stele, coleoptiles, phloem elements, and leaf tissues. However, the retention of the foreign gene in the engineered plants was transient and the gene was lost in the absence of Kanamycin stress. With genomic transcipts of SCNMV full-length cDNA clones of 5ng per bombardment, replication of the delivered genomic viral transcripts was supported by intact primary leaves of cowpea.