Curve-of-growth analyses were made for the coolest BaII star HD 121447 and the CS star R CMi using absolute gf-values, and the atmospheric parameters and relative abundances of fourteen elements were determined. The results are in accordance with those by curve-of-growth analyses with respect to ζ Cap, though the errors are somewhat larger. The spectra of these two stars are similar to those of cool carbon stars, but the molecular bands are much weaker. Line blending in cool carbon stars, therefore, can be corrected by comparing with the spectra of these two stars.
The excess Gibbs energy of mixing for a regular solution can be derived systematically by defining the interaction energy for particle groups composed of closest neighbors at equivalent site. The internal energy of a system is regarded as the sum of the interaction energy for particle groups and the excess function is derived from the sum of the interaction energy change caused by the formations of particle groups. In the present paper, we have derived the excess Gibbs energy of mixing for ternary and quaternary regular solutions with a closest packing. For a ternary regular solution, the molar excess Gibbs energy of mixing is given as follows, Gex=XAXB(XAWAAB+XBWABB)+XBXC (XBWBBC+XCWBCC) +XCXA(XCWCCA+XAWCAA)+2XAXBXCWABC, where Xi is a mole fraction of the component i and Wijk is an interaction parameter of [ijk] triplet. The following expressions for n-component systems are derived by the similar method by supposing interaction energy among r particles. Some previously proposed models can be derived from our model. n=2, r=2: Gex=XAXBWAB (symmetric binary regular solution model) n=2, r=3: Gex=XAXB(XAWAAB+XBWABB)(asymmetvie binary regular solution model) n=3, r=2: Gex=XAXBWAB+XBXCWBC+XCXAWCA (symmetric ternary regular solution model) n=3, r=3: Gex=XAXB(XAWAAB+XBWABB)+XBXC(XBWBBC+XCWBCC) +XCXA(XCWCCA+XAWCAA)+2XAXBXCWABC (new ternary model: stated above) n=4, r=4: Gex=XA3XBWAAAB+XB3XAWBBBA+XA3XCWAAAC+XC3XAWCCCA +XA3XDWAAAD+XD3XAWDDDA+XB3XCWBBBC+XC3XBWCCCB +XB3XDWBBBD+XD3XBWDDDB+XC3XDWCCCD+XD3XCWDDDC +3/2XA2XB2WAABB+3/2XA2XC2WAACC+3/2XA2XD2WAADD +3/2XB2XC2WBBCC+3/2XB2XD2WBBDD+3/2XC2XD2WCCDD +3XA2XBXCWAABC+3XA2XBXDWAABD+3XA2XCXDWAACD +3XB2XAXCWBBAC+3XB2XAXDWBBAD+3XB2XCXDWBBCD +3XC2XAXBWCCAB+3XC2XAXDWCCAD+3XC2XBXDWCCBD +3XD2XAXB⊗WDDAB+3XD2XAXCWDDAC+3XD2XBXCWDDBC +6XAXBXCXDWABCD.
We have succeeded in evaluating mathematically the relative magnitude of lanthanide tetrad effects for four subgroups of lanthanides. Our new mathematical method was applied to two kinds of data; (1) the results secured by water-rock interaction in the laboratory and (2) the data on a ground water running from cracks of rock wall in a tunnel as well as a probably related granitic rock. The resultant numerical values of quadratic coefficients pertaining to the tetrad phenomenon are expected to be of importance. Further, a new simple model accountable for the tetrad phenomenon observed in a variety of physical and chemical phases is proposed about the 4felectron configuration. It will also give any clue or impetus to a wide scope of sciences ranging from quantum mechanics to geological sciences.
Actin based motor protein was purified from Chara corallina using high performance liquid chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis showed that the molecular weight of the main band was about 230kDa. Although the molecular weight was quite similar to that of the heavy chain of muscle myosin (myosin II), the motor protein was soluble at low ionic strength and antibody raised against the main band did not recognize smooth muscle myosin. The antibody also did not recognize the actin based motor protein from lily pollen tube. The motor protein translocated fluorescently labeled actin filaments at about 25μm/s in the in vitro motility assay. The MgATPase activity of the motor protein was enhanced by F-actin about 150 fold. Calcium ion concentration had little effect on both the motor activity and the actin activated MgATPase activity.
Both the enantiomers of methyl 3-methyloctanoate 2, which had been synthesized starting from methyl (R)- and (S)-3-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoate 3 in 9 steps, were converted to enantiomers of 4-methyl-l-nonanol 1, the sex pheromone of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. in 5 steps. As enantiomers of the pheromone 1 synthesized previously were shown to be ca. 90% e.e. or ca. 98% e.e., our synthetic sample (ca. 100% e.e.) must be a good candidate for the precise biological study.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect genomic differences between healthy and paulownia witches'-broom (PaWB)-affected paulownia plants using fifteen primer-pair combinations derived from five randomly synthesized primers based on the P1-like adhesin gene sequence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Upon comparing the PCR product profiles between healthy and PaWB-affected paulownia DNA samples, three types of PCR profiles were observed. Firstly, some bands were amplified from both healthy and PaWB-affected paulownia DNA samples; secondly, some DNA bands were amplified only from PaWB-affected paulownia DNA samples; thirdly, a few DNA bands were amplified only from healthy paulownia DNA samples. DNA amplified from PaWB-affected paulownia DNA samples hybridized only with PaWB-affected paulownia DNA samples, suggesting the DNA was derived from paulownia phytoplasma genome.
Inter-basepair H-bonds in DNA are examined in the light of some crystal structures. An inter-basepair bond can be made on the major groove side from a Ci; base to the Wi+1 base. Such a bond can bridge two bases in CC/GG, CA/TG, AC/GT, and AA/TT steps. Inter-basepair H-bonds can stabilise different conformations of the basepair steps depending on the DNA sequences, and thereby can determine particular superstructures of DNA.
In the light of the crystal structures of some transcription factors, the Huntington's disease protein (huntingtin) is examined. The protein is likely to be a transcription factor and is likely to fold into a dimer by using a new type of zipper.
The secondary structure elements and the folding topology of the DNA-binding domain of mouse interferon regulatory factor 2 [IRF-2(113)] were determined by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. The sequential NOE (nuclear Overhauser effect) connectivities indicated the presence of three α-helical regions and four short β-strands connected by relatively long loops. The long range NOEs indicated the four strands form an antiparallel β-sheet and the three α-helices form a bundle on the sheet. The arrangement of the secondary structure elements and the overall folding topology resemble those of the DNA binding domains of bacterial activator CAP, heat shock transcription factors and fork-head family transcription factors, although there is no sequence homology among them.
Immunotherapy with BCG-CWS (the cell wall skeleton from Bacille Calmette-Guérin) alone has been tried on the patients with various kinds of cancer, after surgical operation and/or chemotherapy. After the inoculation most of the patients revealed biological responses: skin reactions (erythema, inouration and ulcer formation), physical signs, and cytokine induction in peripheral blood (G-CSF, IL-6 and IFN-γ). Among the patients, those who revealed distinct IFN-γ induction and/or strong skin reaction are alive in healthy state including a few cases of complete recovery. Those who showed no IFN-γ induction, even if they had weak skin reaction, died in a short period. Most of them were in terminal stage or had had repeated chemical or radiation therapy before immunotherapy. These results suggest that nonspecific Immunotherapy with BCG-CWS, if applied independently of any other therapy, will provide an extremely effective way to prevent relapse or occurrence of secondary cancer, and those who produce IFN-γ responding BCG-CWS inoculation can be regarded as perfect candidates for cancer immunotherapy under discussion.
Point mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are associated with the development of inherited diseases including multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), and Hirschsprung's disease as well as a part of sporadic MTCs and pheochromocytomas. In the present study, we examined point mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in exons 10, 11 and 16 in small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell lines. A novel point mutation from GCC to GAC at colon 664 in exon 11 was identified in 2 out of 6 SCLC cell lines; this alteration results in an amino acid substitution of aspartic acid for alanine. This point mutation was not detected in other types of cancer cell lines so far examined. Point mutations of the RET proto-oncogene reported previously inexons 10, 11 and 16 in above-mentioned diseases were not detected in the SCLC cell lines. These results suggest that this point mutation of the RET proto-oncogene is closely associated with a part of SCLC.