Cell migration is a complex molecular event that requires translocation of a large, stiff nucleus, oftentimes through interstitial pores of submicron size in tissues. Remarkable progress in the past decade has uncovered an ever-increasing array of diverse nuclear dynamics and underlying cytoskeletal control in various cell models. In many cases, the microtubule motors dynein and kinesin directly interact with the nucleus via the LINC complex and steer directional nuclear movement, while actomyosin contractility and its global flow exert forces to deform and move the nucleus. In this review, I focus on the synergistic interplay of the cytoskeletal motors and spatiotemporal sites of force transmission in various nuclear migration models, with a special focus on neuronal migration in the vertebrate brain.
A single molecular junction is a nanoscale structure prepared by bridging a single molecule between macroscopic metal electrodes. It has attracted significant attention due to its unique structure and potential applications in ultra-small single molecular electronic devices. It has two metal-molecule interfaces, and thus the electronic structure of the molecule can be significantly modulated from its original one. The single molecular junction can be regarded as a new material that includes metal electrodes, a so-called “double interface material”. Therefore, we can expect unconventional physical and chemical properties. To develop a better understanding of the properties and functionalities of single molecular junctions, their atomic and electronic structures should be characterized. In this review, we describe the development of these characterization techniques, such as inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, as well as shot noise and thermopower measurements. We have also described some unique properties and functionalities of single molecular junctions, such as switching and diode properties.
Most beetles belonging to the subfamily Carabinae of the family Carabidae (so-called carabid ground beetles) cannot fly, because their hind-wings are highly degenerated. However, about half of the species in the subtribe Calosomina within the same subfamily can fly. From extensive morphological examinations of the hind-wings of Carabinae species in conjunction with DNA molecular phylogenetic trees, the process and possible causes of hind-wing degeneration in the Carabinae are discussed.