The 5-day wave was detected in composite maps of geopotential height fields of ECMWF data set of 8 years from 1984 to 1991. The structure was similar to that predicted by the Laplace's tidal equation except a characteristic NW-SE meridional phase tilt in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the cause of this meridional phase tilt, numerical simulations were carried out with the shallow water equation on a sphere (Laplace's tidal equation) with a periodic forcin g in aform of a standing wave of zonal wavenumber 1. The result showed that the meridional phase tilt of the 5-day wave was produced only when the forcing was located in high latitudes. Comparison of this result with the observational results indicates that a forcing of the 5-day wave is located in the high latitude of the Southern Hemisphere. The standing wave is produced by coupling of the Antarctica with the fluctuating Westerly. Numerical simulations which incorporated this mechanism reproduced the realistic meridional phase tilt of the observed 5-day wave, suggesting that this coupling is an effective mechanism which excites the 5-day wave by resonance.
Most of the previously determined water solubilities in silicate melts are overestimated because of an experimental quenching problem. Hydration of run product glass with coexisting aqueous bubbles causes the overestimation. Due to relatively slow quenching rate in conventional IHPVs, hydration of the glass by trapped aqueous bubbles inevitably takes place at a significant speed. In this paper, a new method for the solubility determination is proposed by which the hydration problem can be avoided. Using a new IHPV with rapid quenching device and utilizing intensive mapping analysis of water for the experimental charges with SIMS, solubility of water was newly determined for albite melt at 2, 000bar. The solubility obtained was 10-30% lower than those previously reported. Because the water solubility data for albite melt have been used as standard reference in silicate melt literatures, the present observation has pivotal importance.
A possible structure and possible DNA-binding mode of transcription factors in the PhoB/OmpR family are discussed in comparison with those of another DNA-binding protein, histone H5. The amino acid sequences of the DNA-binding domains of factors in this family strongly resemble that of H5 and thus the former are predicted to adopt the same globular fold as the latter, i.e. a domain which is composed of three α-helices, a β-strand (placed between the first two helices) and a β-hairpin at the C-terminus (the β-strand and the β-hairpin fold into a single β-sheet). The third helix is predicted to contact the DNA bases. The residues which have been identified as contacting RNA polymerase are located at the C-terminus of the second helix and the N-terminus of the third helix.