Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements.
The direct addition of ortho C–H bonds in various aromatic compounds such as ketones, esters, imines, imidates, nitriles, and aldehydes to olefins and acetylenes can be achieved with the aid of transition metal catalysts. The ruthenium catalyzed reaction is usually highly efficient and useful as a general synthetic method. The coordination to the metal center by a heteroatom in a directing group such as carbonyl and imino groups in aromatic compounds is the key step in this process. Mechanistically, the reductive elimination to form a C–C bond is the rate-determining step, while the C–H bond cleavage step is not.
This review focuses on the development of ruthenium and flavin catalysts for environmentally benign oxidation reactions based on mimicking the functions of cytochrome P-450 and flavoenzymes, and low valent transition-metal catalysts that replace conventional acids and bases. Several new concepts and new types of catalytic reactions based on these concepts are described.
Serial transmission electron microscopy of human megakaryocytes (MKs) revealed their polyploidization and gradual maturation through consecutive transition in characteristics of various organelles and others. At the beginning of differentiation, MK with ploidy 32N, e.g., has 16 centrosomes in the cell center surrounded by 32N nucleus. Each bundle of microtubules (MTs) emanated from the respective centrosome supports and organizes 16 equally volumed cytoplasmic compartments which together compose one single 32N MK. During the differentiation, single centriole separated from the centriole pair, i.e., centrosome, migrates to the most periphery of the cell through MT bundle, corresponding to a half of the interphase array originated from one centrosome, supporting one “putative cytoplasmic compartment” (PCC). Platelet demarcation membrane (DM) is constructed on the boundary surface between neighbouring PCCs. Matured PCC, composing of a tandem array of platelet territories covered by a sheet of DM is designated as protoplatelet. Eventually, the rupture of MK results in release of platelets from protoplatelets.
Serine:pyruvate (or alanine:glyoxylate) aminotransferase (SPT or AGT) in the liver is unique in that its subcellular distribution is entirely peroxisomal in man and herbivores, and largely mitochondrial in carnivores. In rats, this enzyme is located in both mitochondria and peroxisomes and only the mitochondrial activity is markedly induced by glucagon. The mechanism of the species-specific dual organelle localization is either transcription of the gene from two different start sites or loss of upstream translation initiation ATG codon by mutations. In herbivores, peroxisomal localization of SPT appears to be indispensable to prevent excessive oxalate production by removing glyoxylate, an immediate precursor of oxalate, formed from glycolate in this organelle. In carnivores, its mitochondrial localization appears to be needed to metabolize glyoxylate formed from L-hydroxyproline in mitochondria. In addition, SPT contributes substantially to gluconeogenesis from serine in rabbit, human and dog livers, irrespective of its mitochondrial or peroxisomal localization.