Coding technology is used in several information processing tasks. In particular, when noise during transmission disturbs communications, coding technology is employed to protect the information. However, there are two types of coding technology: coding in classical information theory and coding in quantum information theory. Although the physical media used to transmit information ultimately obey quantum mechanics, we need to choose the type of coding depending on the kind of information device, classical or quantum, that is being used. In both branches of information theory, there are many elegant theoretical results under the ideal assumption that an infinitely large system is available. In a realistic situation, we need to account for finite size effects. The present paper reviews finite size effects in classical and quantum information theory with respect to various topics, including applied aspects.
Glycosidic compounds are indispensable molecules in living systems. Biological phenomena such as cell wall formation, energy storage, and cell recognition strongly depend on the multi-functional characters of these substances. Development of highly regio- and stereoselective glycosylation reactions is necessary to provide sufficient amounts of specific compounds in basic research as well as for applications in industry. This review presents an overview of chemical and chemo-enzymatic glycosylations that have been developed during my forty-year academic career in the field of glyco-science. In the course of these studies, several new concepts such as “Direct Anomeric Activation”, “Glyco-Process Chemistry” and “Glyco-Chemistry Cycles” have been established.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide. While cancers may initially show good response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, it is not uncommon for them to recur at a later date. This phenomenon may be explained by the existence of a small population of cancer stem cells, which are inherently resistant to anti-cancer treatment as well as being capable of self-renewal. Therefore, while most of the tumour bulk consisting of cells that are not cancer stem cells respond to treatment, the cancer stem cells remain, leading to disease recurrence. Following this logic, the effective targeting of cancer stem cells holds promise for providing long-term cure in individuals with cancer. Cancer stem cells, like normal stem cells are endowed with mechanisms to protect themselves against a wide range of insults including anti-cancer treatments, such as the enhancement of the DNA damage response and the ability to extrude drugs. It is therefore important to develop new strategies if cancer stem cells are to be eradicated. In this review, we describe the strategies that we have developed to target cancer stem cells. These strategies include the targeting of the histone demethylase jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B), which we found to be functionally significant in the maintenance of cancer stem cells. Other strategies being pursued include reprogramming of cancer stem cells and the targeting of a functional cell surface marker of liver cancer stem cells, the aminopeptidase CD13.