Extremely heavy damage in Kobe City of the 1995 M=7.2 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake was localized in a narrow zone consisting of small patches with the size of several tens to hundreds of meters. We present a model that the heterogeneous uppermost crustal structure caused localization of seismic waves, which was similar to Anderson localization known in quantum physics, and this localization caused the localized damage. One-dimensional numerical calculations showed that localization of seismic waves could occur when the medium is heterogeneous. The result also showed that the localization of waves of high frequencies up to 3Hz would play an important role in generating strong motion damage.
Allosamidin is a chitinase inhibitor produced by Streptomyces. Allosamidin-producing Streptomyces is frequently found in soil. Allosamidin is a hydrophilic compound, but is found only in mycelia of its producer, and exogenous allosamidin is adsorbed on mycelia of its producing strain. We found that exogenous addition of allosamidin to a culture medium with colloidal chitin as a sole carbon source can strongly accelerate the chitinase production by an allosamidin-producing Streptomyces at low concentrations such as 1μM. On the other hand, allosamidin depressed the chitinase activity in the culture of Streptomyces lividans, an allosamidin-nonproducing microbe. These results suggest that allosamidin has a physiological role in its producer as an inducer of chitinase production, which may be useful for chitin utilization by the producer in chitin-rich environment such as in soil.
The preparation and the characteristics of an antibody specific for the 2-O-β-D-glucosides of C19-gibberellins are described. The antibody, anti-GA26-GEt-antibody, was prepared by immunizing rabbits with an tmmunogenic conjugate of 2-O-β-D-glucosyl gibberellin A26 (GA26-GEt) and bovine serum albumin. The cross-reactivities of gibberellin glucosides with the anti-GA26-GEt-antibody were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While 2-O-β-D-glucosylated gibberellins such as GA8-GEt, GA26-GEt, and GA29-GEt showed high cross-reactivity to the antibody, others did not. The logit-log standard plots showed the measuring range was from 30fmol to 10pmol for the GA8-GEt and GA26-GEt. The validity of the antibody was examined by the analysis of GA-GEts in immature seeds of Pharbitis nil.