The solvent extracted vegetable seed oils of Cucurbitaceae family viz. Bitter gourd (Momordica charentia), Small bitter gourd (Momordica dioica), Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siscraria) and Ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) were evaluated as grain protectant against callosobruchus chinensis on the stored legume-pulse grains. All the vegetable seed oils were found effective as legume-pulse grain protectant, which provided, negligible weight loss at the oil-application rate of 6-8 mL/kg in legume-pulse grain after 60 days storage at laboratory conditions. The milling yield and degree of dehusking gets improved after the oil application. The use of solvent extracted Small bitter gourd seed oil at the level of 6-8 mL/kg of legume-pulse grain sample resulted in the improved apparent degree of dehusking from 40.0 to 72.59, 59.88 to 92.44, 63.39 to 87.50 and 57.0 to 79.43 for Pigeonpea (Canjanus cajan), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum), Urdbean (Phaseolus mungo) and Mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus), respectively.
Biodiesel fuel is gaining more and more importance because of the depletion and uncontrollable prices of fossil fuel resources. The use of vegetable oil and their derivatives as alternatives for diesel fuel is the best answer and as old as Diesel Engine. Chemically biodiesel fuel is the mono alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from renewable feed stocks like vegetable oils and animal fats. Safflower oil contains 75-80% of linoleic acid; the presence of this unsaturated fatty acid is useful in alleviating low temperature properties like pour point, cloud point and cold filter plugging point. In this paper we studied the effect of various parameters such as temperature, molar ratio (oil to alcohol), and concentration of catalyst on synthesis of biodiesel fuel from safflower oil. The better suitable conditions of 1:6 molar ratio (oil to alcohol), 60°C temperature and catalyst concentration of 2% (by wt. of oil) were determined. The finally obtained biodiesel fuel was analyzed for fatty acid composition by GLC and some other properties such as flash point, specific gravity and acid value were also determined. From the results it was clear that the produced biodiesel fuel was with in the recommended standards of biodiesel fuel with 96.8% yield.
Fatty acid distillates (FADs) produced during physical refining of vegetable oil contains large amount of free fatty acid. A mutant of Candida tropicalis (M20) obtained after several stages of UV mutation are utilized to produce dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) from the fatty acid distillates of rice bran, soybean, coconut, palm kernel and palm oil. Initially, fermentation study was carried out in shake flasks for 144 h. Products were isolated and identified by GLC analysis. Finally, fermentation was carried out in a 2 L jar fermenter, which yielded 62 g/L and 48 g/L of total dibasic acids from rice bran oil fatty acid distillate and coconut oil fatty acid distillate respectively. FADs can be effectively utilized to produce DCAs of various chain lengths by biooxidation process.
The present study examined the in vitro antioxidant activity of conjugated octadecatrienoic fatty acid (9cis, 11 trans, 13 trans-18:3), α-eleostearic acid present in karela seed oil (Momordica charantia) at about 55% level. The in vitro antioxidant properties of α-eleostearic acid are investigated on oxidative modification of human plasma, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and erythrocyte membrane lipid. Blood samples are collected from diabetic and non-diabetic (normal) healthy individuals. α-eleostearic acid is added at 0.05% and 0.1% concentrations to plasma, LDL and erythrocyte membrane isolated from the respective blood samples and peroxidations are determined against control samples. A significant increase of respective peroxidation levels has been observed in diabetic control blood than the non-diabetic control blood. α-eleostearic acid has decreased lipid peroxidation level against control samples in a dose dependent manner. The present findings suggest that CLnA, 9cis, 11trans, 13trans-18:3 is a potentially effective antioxidant that can protect plasma, low density lipoprotein and erythrocyte membrane from oxidation which may be effective in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in diabetes mellitus.
In Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.) calli, free sterol (FS), acylsterol (AS) and glycosylsterol, including the acylated type, were found in the proportion of 1.0:0.1:0.8. When the calli were cultured in the presence of 10 mM mevalonic acid (MVA), the content of AS, but not FS and glycosylsterol, was increased remarkably. The major component sterol in each sterol lipid class was usually sitosterol (more than 90%) with campesterol as a minor one. There were no differences on the sterol compositions between the calli cultured with or without MVA. When the calli cultured with 10 mM MVA for 6 weeks were transferred to the control medium without exogenous MVA, AS contents decreased to the level of the control calli. Thus, it was shown that sterol lipids, such as FS and glycosylsterols, with the structural functions was maintained in the constant content and the excess sterol biosynthesized from exogenous MVA was esterified to form AS for storage of sterol components.
Cataract is a phenomenon in which the eye becomes opaque resulting in severe visual impairment, and senile cataract is the most common cause of blindness in the world. We investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg) supplementation on cataract development using shumiya cataract rat (SCR). The SCR were fed on either a low Mg (Mg 50 mg/kg), standard Mg (Mg 500 mg/kg), or high Mg (Mg 5000 mg/kg) diet from aged 5 to 15 weeks. The growth curve of SCRs fed on a low Mg diet was the same as that of SCRs fed on a standard diet. The growth curve of SCRs fed on a high Mg diet was significantly suppressed in comparison with those fed on a standard diet. The opacification of lenses from SCR fed on a standard Mg diet started at 11 weeks of age. The opacification of lenses from SCR fed on a high Mg diet was similar to that from SCR fed on a standard Mg diet. On the other hand, the low Mg diet accelerated the onset of cataract development, and the opacity started at 10 weeks of age. In addition, the calcium ion (Ca2+) content in SCR lenses fed on a low Mg diet significantly increased in comparison with that in lenses from SCR fed on a standard Mg diet. These results suggest that Mg deficiency causes acceleration of cataract development in SCR, probably due to a rise in the Ca2+ content in the lens.
In order to evaluate to the feasibility of using lecithins for nanocapsules including functional food materials, liposomes were prepared from different commercially available lecithins (SLP-WHITE, SLP-PC70 and PL30S) by the Bangham method, and their physicochemical properties were examined by using a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the measurements of trapping efficiency. There was little difference in the trapping efficiency among the three types of liposomes. In all cases, the trapping efficiency clearly increased with an increase of the lecithin concentration up to 10 wt % , and the maximum efficiency reached at approximately 15%. CLSM observation showed the particle size of liposomes prepared from SLP-WHITE is significantly smaller than that prepared from other lecithins. In addition, liposomal solution prepared from SLP-WHITE remained well dispersed for at least 30 days, while two other liposomal solutions showed a phase separation due to aggregation and/or fusion of liposomes. These results indicated that SLP-WHITE is the most appropriate for the preparation of stable liposomes with well dispersed among the lecithins tested. SLP-WHITE liposomes were then prepared by the mechanochemical method using a homogenizer and microfluidizer, aiming at improving the preparation efficiency and liposome stability. The particle size of the prepared SLP-WHITE liposomes decreased with increasing inlet pressure and the number of processed cycles, and reached between 73 and 123 nm based on the measurement using dynamic light scattering. Moreover, freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy revealed that the prepared liposomes are small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) with a diameter of approximately 100 nm. The extract of Curcuma longa Linn. (Ukon), which contains curcumins as a functional food material, was then subjected to the mechanochemical method with SLP-WHITE to give liposomes including the functional materials. Interestingly, the trapping efficiency of the liposomes for curcumins was found to reach over 85%. From these results, the present mechanochemical method is very likely to allow us to efficiently prepare stable and functional liposomes from the low-cost lecithin. The method may thus have a potential for manufacturing practical nanocapsules, which serves as a novel carrier of functional food materials.
We isolated the glycolipids fraction from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and found that the fraction inhibited the activities of prokaryotic DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and cell growth of E. coli. The fraction contained mainly three glycolipids, monogalactosyl diacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), and purified SQDG inhibited these activities, however, purified MGDG and DGDG had no influence. In the tested strains of E. coli, SQDG inhibited the cell proliferation of the JM109 strain. It could be considered that a SQDG-containing thylakoid membrane in plant chloroplasts might have anti-bacterial activity.