Wax esters, one of the important ingredients in cosmetic industry, are long-chain esters that exhibit wetting behavior with non-greasy feeling. Wax esters derived from long chain fatty acids and long chain alcohols with chain lengths of 12 carbons or more. These compounds have many potential applications in cosmetics, pharmaceutical and food industries. The present work focuses on the scale-up synthesis of wax esters by alcoholysis of palm oil (PO) with oleyl alcohol (OA) using Lipozyme in a bioreactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) and a 5-level-5-factor central composite rotatable design were adopted to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, such as temperature (40-60°C), amount of enzyme (14-22% by weight of PO), amount of palm oil (80-240 mmol), amount of oleyl alcohol (240-720 mmol) and impeller speed (100-400 rpm) on the percentage yield of palm-based wax esters. Based on Design Expert Software (version 6.0.4), optimum alcoholysis conditions were: temperature, 50.4°C, amount of enzyme, 16.0% by weight of palm oil, amount of palm oil, 200.0 mmol, amount of oleyl alcohol, 600.0 mmol, palm oil/oleyl alcohol ratio, 3:1 and impeller speed, 242.1 rpm. The corresponding predicted value of percentage yield and productivity was 91.5% and 106.4 mmol/h respectively compared to the actual experimental value 92.3% yields and 110.8 mmol/h productivity.
Acid, peroxide and carbonyl values are often used for assessment of the deterioration of frying oils and fats in Japan. But in some cases, these indexes don’t provide adequate evaluation. In many European countries, amounts of polymerized triacylglycerols, which are major components of deterioration, serve as a more accurate index for this assessment. A standard method to determine these amounts should thus be established and applied in this country. To that end, a collaborative study was conducted to quantify polymerized triacylglycerols in oils and fats using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with refractive index detection. Analytical conditions such as column, sample concentration and injection volume were optimized so as to achieve accurate and reproducible results. From these results, an adequate standard method was established. The study findings are follows: 1) The column (TSKgel G2500HXL) with a size exclusion limit at a molecular weight of 2 × 104 (polystyrene standard) was found most effective for separating polymerized triacylglycerols from triacylglycerols. 2) A sample concentration of 0.5% and an injection volume of 50μL were best for achieving reproducible result. CVR was 2.4 with heated rapeseed oil containing approximately 2.5% polymerized triacylglycerols. 3) Several peaks appeared between polymerized triacylglycerols and triacylglycerols in used oils and fats, but the separation was insufficient because hydrolysis occurred during frying. In such cases, the use of several columns connected together was found to bring about adequate separation.
A substance, extracted from GOISHICHA in water and ethyl alcohol (ethanol) was administered to rats for 3 weeks (both extracts were each dissolved in distilled water to adjust concentration to 100 mg/ml/day, and administered orally using a gastric tube) and the animals were examined for the effects on serum and liver lipids. 1) TC concentration was considerably suppressed by both extracts which also enhanced HDL-C. 2) PL significantly increased by the water extract while the ethanol extract increased PL though not significantly. 3) Both extracts significantly suppressed LOOH thus confirming the antioxidant effect of each. 4) TL content was basically the same for the two experimental groups the ethanol extract having pronounced effect on TC and FFA, and PL content and the water extract,only on that of TG.
In the present paper simple, rapid, reliable and economical colour test has been reported for the detection of sesame oil in other oils and fats. When few drops of sesame oil or other oil/fat sample containing sesame oil treated successively with hydrochloric acid and alcoholic solution of 2-thiophene carboxaldehyde followed by shaking of the mixture a pink or deep red colour develops within five minutes in the lower acid layer indicating the presence of sesame oil. This test is sensitive to the extent of 0.1% of sesame oil in other oils and fats.
The halide sensitive fluorescence probe, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium (SPQ), provides a direct approach for measurement of halide concentrations dissociated from the surfactant monomer and micelle. The gel filtration method confirms that the water-soluble SPQ probe will tend to partition in aqueous bulk phase without trapping in cationic micelles. The fluorescence of SPQ is quenched by free halide ions with a linear Stern-Volmer relation below the CMC of cationic surfactants. The Stern-Volmer plot gave a distinct break at CMC owing to the counterion binding to micelles. The CMC and degree of micellar counterion binding (β) are generally in agreement with those obtained by conductivity method. The SPQ fluorescence quenching had high sensitivities with Stern-Volmer constants of 125 M-1 (chloride) and 223 M-1 (bromide), while it was insensitive to nitrate ion. The selective quenching behavior shows that the nitrate ions bind to micelles displacing bromide for tetradecyltrimethylammonium micelles. The increase in counterion binding to micellar surface lower the CMC of surfactants, TTAOAc (tetradecyltrimethylammonium acetate) > TTAC (tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride) > TTAB (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide) > TTAN (tetradecyltrimethylammonium nitrate).
Shrimp (Acetes sp.) was mixed with salt in a ratio of 3:1 and allowed to ferment at room temperature (28-30°C). From the shrimp paste samples collected at the initial (1 day) and end (10 days) of fermentation, 85% ethanol extracts were prepared for their antioxidative assays. Both extracts exhibited high free radical scavenging property against 1,1 diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl and suppressed peroxidation of methyl linoleate initiated by 2,2′azobis 2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride. These antioxidative activities, however, did not change significantly during fermentation for 10 days, thus suggesting that the observed antioxidative activities could have mainly due to original antioxidants present in shrimp but not to its fermentative products. The salt-fermented shrimp samples contained large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids including EPA and DHA, although the polar lipids like phospholipids were hydrolyzed during fermentation to produce the corresponding amount of free fatty acids. In addition, free amino acids of the shrimp sample significantly increased during the fermentation and could be responsible for the unique flavor of salt-fermented shrimp paste. Since the salt-fermented shrimp paste was found to obtain potent antioxidative substances and large amount of EPA, DHA, and amino acids, it is expected to act as an effective antioxidant in our body and to be a good source of these nutrients.
We extracted the lipophilic compounds from ten wine vinegars (imported from USA, Italy, France, and Germany) with a mixture of chloroform-methanol, and analyzed their lipid species and component fatty acids by silica gel thin-layer chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. The amount of chloroform-methanol extracts was 1.2 to 3.8 mg/100 ml vinegar. In the wine vinegar samples, the primary lipid classes from the raw material (grape must) were hardly detected, though free fatty acid was usually found. The content of total acyls of four red wine vinegars ranged from 91 to 158 nmol/100 ml, and those of six white wine vinegars from 89 to 352 nmol/100 ml. All the vinegar samples had palmitic acid (25-42%), stearic acid (12-20%), and oleic acid (20-33%) as major fatty acid components. In addition, linoleic acid was one of principal fatty acids in the two samples made in France. Four wine vinegars made in Italy had similar fatty acid profiles. All the wine vinegars were classified into three groups by the fatty acid profiles, but a difference between red and white wine vinegars was not found.